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      Two-Dimensional Gas of Massless Dirac Fermions in Graphene

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          Abstract

          Electronic properties of materials are commonly described by quasiparticles that behave as non-relativistic electrons with a finite mass and obey the Schroedinger equation. Here we report a condensed matter system where electron transport is essentially governed by the Dirac equation and charge carriers mimic relativistic particles with zero mass and an effective "speed of light" c* ~10^6m/s. Our studies of graphene - a single atomic layer of carbon - have revealed a variety of unusual phenomena characteristic of two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermions. In particular, we have observed that a) the integer quantum Hall effect in graphene is anomalous in that it occurs at half-integer filling factors; b) graphene's conductivity never falls below a minimum value corresponding to the conductance quantum e^2/h, even when carrier concentrations tend to zero; c) the cyclotron mass m of massless carriers with energy E in graphene is described by equation E =mc*^2; and d) Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in graphene exhibit a phase shift of pi due to Berry's phase.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          13 September 2005
          Article
          10.1038/nature04233
          cond-mat/0509330
          e8e72c07-ec41-4ccf-8f06-8a6c796d2a22
          History
          Custom metadata
          Nature 438:197,2005
          cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.str-el gr-qc hep-th

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