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      A Comparison of Practice Pattern and Outcome of Twice-weekly and Thrice-weekly Hemodialysis Patients

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          Abstract

          Renal replacement therapy (RRT) options and practice varies in countries worldwide and is influenced by patients' choice, nephrologists' practice patterns, health system, payer practice, public policy, and socioeconomic factors. In India, hemodialysis (HD) remains the dominant RRT modality, and the practice is largely influenced by socioeconomics of the region of practice since third party payer is limited. Resource stretch to maximize outcome benefit is essential and HD session twice weekly is an improvized and cost-effective clinical practice. However, within the country, the patient characteristics, practice patterns, and outcomes of twice-weekly HD compared against patients dialyzed thrice weekly remain unclear. We did a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent twice- and thrice-weekly HD in a single center under similar settings. The patients on thrice a week dialysis were older and with a higher proportion of diabetics and were insured by private payers. Weight gain, ultrafiltration rates, blood pressures, and hemoglobin remained more favorable in the thrice-weekly patients. There was no significant difference in the hospitalization rates or mortality rates in the two groups. Patients who undergo twice-weekly HD have poorer intermediate measures of the outcome; although, morbidity and survival were not different in a small study population with short follow-up. The small sample size and the short duration of follow-up may limit the scope of findings of our study.

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          What do we know about chronic kidney disease in India: first report of the Indian CKD registry

          Background There are no national data on the magnitude and pattern of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in India. The Indian CKD Registry documents the demographics, etiological spectrum, practice patterns, variations and special characteristics. Methods Data was collected for this cross-sectional study in a standardized format according to predetermined criteria. Of the 52,273 adult patients, 35.5%, 27.9%, 25.6% and 11% patients came from South, North, West and East zones respectively. Results The mean age was 50.1 ± 14.6 years, with M:F ratio of 70:30. Patients from North Zone were younger and those from the East Zone older. Diabetic nephropathy was the commonest cause (31%), followed by CKD of undetermined etiology (16%), chronic glomerulonephritis (14%) and hypertensive nephrosclerosis (13%). About 48% cases presented in Stage V; they were younger than those in Stages III-IV. Diabetic nephropathy patients were older, more likely to present in earlier stages of CKD and had a higher frequency of males; whereas those with CKD of unexplained etiology were younger, had more females and more frequently presented in Stage V. Patients in lower income groups had more advanced CKD at presentation. Patients presenting to public sector hospitals were poorer, younger, and more frequently had CKD of unknown etiology. Conclusions This report confirms the emergence of diabetic nephropathy as the pre-eminent cause in India. Patients with CKD of unknown etiology are younger, poorer and more likely to present with advanced CKD. There were some geographic variations.
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            Residual renal function improves outcome in incremental haemodialysis despite reduced dialysis dose.

            The importance of residual renal function is well recognized in peritoneal dialysis but its role in haemodialysis (HD) has received much less attention. We studied 650 incident patients in our incremental high-flux HD programme over a 15-year period. Target total Kt/V urea (dialysis plus residual renal) was 1.2 per session and monitored monthly. Renal urea clearance (KRU) was estimated 1-3 monthly. KRU declined during the first 5 years of HD from 3.1 +/- 1.9 at 3 months to 0.9 +/- 1.2 ml/min/1.73 m(2) at 5 years. The percentage of patients with KRU >or= 1 ml/min at these time points was 85% and 31%, respectively. Patients with KRU >or= 1 ml/min had a significantly lower mean creatinine (all time points), ultrafiltration requirement (all time points) and serum potassium (6, 12, 36 and 48 months). Nutritional parameters were also significantly better in respect to nPCR and serum albumin (6, 12, 24 and 36 months). Patients with KRU >or= 1 ml/min had significantly lower erythropoietin requirements and erythropoietin resistance indices (12, 24, 36 and 48 months). Mortality was significantly lower in patients with a KRU >or= 1 at 6, 12 and 24 months after HD initiation, this benefit being maintained after correcting for albumin, age, comorbidities, HDF use and renal diagnosis. Our unique finding was that these benefits occurred despite those with KRU >or= 1 ml/min having a significantly lower dialysis Kt/V at all time points. The associations demonstrated suggest that residual renal function contributes significantly to outcome in HD patients and that efforts to preserve it are warranted. Comparative outcome studies should be controlled for residual renal function.
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              Chronic Kidney Disease in India: Challenges and Solutions

              Chronic diseases have become a major cause of global morbidity and mortality even in developing countries. The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in India cannot be assessed accurately. The approximate prevalence of CKD is 800 per million population (pmp), and the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is 150–200 pmp. The most common cause of CKD in population-based studies is diabetic nephropathy. India currently has 820+ nephrologists, 710+ hemodialysis units with 2,500+ dialysis stations and 4,800+ patients on CAPD. There are 172+ transplant centers, two-thirds of which are in South India and mostly privately run. Nearly 3,500 transplants are done annually, the total number of cadaver donors being approximately 700 till now. Thus, taken together, nearly 18,000–20,000 patients (10% of new ESRD cases) in India get renal replacement therapy. The cost of single hemodialysis varies between USD 15 and 40 with an additional cost of erythropoietin being USD 150–200/month. The cost of CAPD using a ‘Y’ set with 3 exchanges/week is USD 400/month. The cost of the transplant procedure in a state-run hospital is USD 800–1,000, and the cost of immunosuppression using tacrolimus, steroid and mycophenolate is USD 350–400/month. Until recently, the government did not recognize CKD/ESRD as a significant problem in India. However, some illustrious activities in relation to CKD brought attention of the media and policymakers to this very common but till now deprived group of diseases. On the one side the government has initiated a process by which it is planning to establish stand-alone hemodialysis units in the country to increase the facilities at an affordable cost, and on the transplant side it had launched a National Organ Transplant Program to facilitate transplantation on a national scale. Hemodialysis program is halfway to being implemented. Thus, in India there is still a long way to go with respect to CKD. Until then, in a country like India, screening of high-risk individuals for CKD and the risk factors is the best bet.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Indian J Nephrol
                Indian J Nephrol
                IJN
                Indian Journal of Nephrology
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0971-4065
                1998-3662
                May-Jun 2017
                : 27
                : 3
                : 185-189
                Affiliations
                Department of Hemodialysis, DaVita Care (India) Pvt. Ltd., Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. T. Mukherjee, No. 38/5, 1 st Floor, Hosur Road, Langford Town, Shantinagar, Bengaluru - 560 025, Karnataka, India. E-mail: drtopoti@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                IJN-27-185
                10.4103/0971-4065.202844
                5434683
                Copyright: © 2017 Indian Journal of Nephrology

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

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