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      Comparison of Incidence of Peritonitis between Peritoneal Dialysis Solution Types

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          Abstract

          Background: Peritonitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD). However, there are no data about the comparison of the incidence of peritonitis among PD solution types. The aim of the present study was to compare the incidence of peritonitis among PD solutions in PD patients treated either with Nutrineal or with Extraneal or with conventional glucose solutions. Materials and Methods: A total of 147 patients (60 female and 87 male) who underwent PD were included in the study. Of these patients, 47 used only glucose solutions (group I), 79 used glucose solutions combined with Extraneal (group II) and 21 used glucose solutions combined with Nutrineal (group III). The laboratory values and demographics of the patients were noted. Results: There was no significant difference in the frequency of peritonitis among the three groups. Peritonitis occurred in 14 of 47 patients (29.8%) in group I, in 28 of 79 patients (35.4%) in group II and in 6 of 21 patients (28.6%) in group III. Patients with serum albumin levels below 3 g/dl had a significantly higher peritonitis rate than patients with serum albumin levels above 3 g/dl (p < 0.05). Conclusion: We have shown that a low serum albumin level is an important risk factor for the development of peritonitis in CAPD patients. The PD solution does not appear to be a risk factor for the development of peritonitis in CAPD patients, although this question should be studied further with larger numbers.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Albumin at the start of peritoneal dialysis predicts the development of peritonitis.

          Both peritonitis and serum albumin level are associated with morbidity and mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Severe cases of peritonitis result in hypoalbuminemia. However, it is not clear whether hypoalbuminemia predicts the development of peritonitis. We performed a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database from six centers in western Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Incident PD patients with a Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score at the start of PD therapy and serum albumin level measured within 30 days of initiation were selected. Poisson regression was used to analyze predictors of peritonitis. Three hundred ninety-three patients had a CCI score and serum albumin level measured at the start of PD therapy. Overall peritonitis rate was 0.65 episodes/dialysis-year. Significant univariate predictors were albumin level (rate ratio [RR], 0.79 per 1-g/dL [10-g/L] increase; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.95; P = 0.015), male sex (P = 0.003), and being dialyzed in the Veterans Administration (RR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.48 to 2.62; P < 0.001) or other center (RR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.92 to 5.62; P < 0.001). Although CCI score correlated inversely with albumin level (r = -0.305; P < 0.001), CCI score was only marginally predictive of peritonitis (P = 0.068). In multivariate analysis, predictors were albumin level (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.31 to 1.75; P = 0.002) and race (RR, 1.36; P = 0.024). Patients with an initial serum albumin level less than 2.9 g/dL (29 g/L) had a peritonitis rate of 1.5 episodes/dialysis-year compared with 0.6 episodes/dialysis-year for patients with an initial serum albumin level of 2.9 g/dL or greater (P < 0.001). Hypoalbuminemia at the start of PD therapy is an independent predictor of subsequent peritonitis. Intervention studies to decrease peritonitis risk in this high-risk subset of patients are needed. Copyright 2003 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.
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            Peritonitis: update on pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management.

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              Peritoneal dialysis

               R Gokal,  NP Mallick (1999)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2007
                May 2007
                02 April 2007
                : 106
                : 1
                : c57-c60
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Nephrology, Ankara Research and Training Hospital, and bDepartment of Nephrology, Fatih University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
                Article
                101485 Nephron Clin Pract 2007;106:c57–c60
                10.1159/000101485
                17409770
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 4, References: 15, Pages: 1
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Albumin, Glucose solutions, Nutrineal, Extraneal, Peritonitis

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