Patients with cancer have an increased risk for venous thrombosis. Interestingly, different cancer types have different rates of thrombosis, with pancreatic cancer having one of the highest rates. However, the mechanisms responsible for the increase in venous thrombosis in patients with cancer are not understood. Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane receptor and primary initiator of blood coagulation. Tumor cells express TF and spontaneously release TF-positive microparticles (MPs) into the blood. MPs are small membrane vesicles that are highly procoagulant. It has been proposed that these circulating tumor-derived, TF-positive MPs may explain the increased rates of venous thrombosis seen in patients with cancer. In animal models, increased levels of tumor-derived, TF-positive MPs are associated with activation of coagulation. Moreover, these MPs bind to sites of vascular injury and enhance thrombosis. We and others have found that patients with cancer have elevated levels of circulating TF-positive MPs. These MPs are derived from tumors because they express tumor markers and are decreased by tumor resection. Importantly, several studies have shown that increased levels of TF-positive MPs correlate with venous thrombosis in patients with cancer. Taken together, these results suggest that TF-positive MPs may be a useful biomarker to identify patients with cancer who are at high risk for thrombosis.