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      The Relationship between Dialysis Metrics and Patient-Reported Cognition, Fatigue, and Physical Function

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          Introduction: The impact of achieving hemodialysis laboratory and hemodynamic quality metrics on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is unknown. Objective: To determine if meeting dialysis laboratory quality of care measures is associated with improved PROs. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we measured the relationship between dialysis patients’ Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) scores and commonly used dialysis quality of care measures. Results: PROMIS surveys were administered to 92 dialysis patients. The mean ± SD scores demonstrated higher fatigue (55.0 ± 9.8) and lower physical function (37.9 ± 7.9) but similar cognition (50.3 ± 10.9) compared to general population normative scores of 50 ± 10. Dialysis patients meeting Kt/V goals had no better scores than those who did not. Meeting the hemoglobin (Hgb) value of ≥10 g/dL was associated with a lower fatigue score, but no difference in cognitive or physical function scores. Meeting the serum albumin goal of ≥4.0 mg/dL was associated with a higher physical function score but made no difference for cognitive function or fatigue score. As a continuous variable, a higher Hgb was associated with lower reported fatigue (HR −1.74 95%, CI [−3.09, −0.39]), but no other measures were associated with PRO scores when adjusted for demographics and comorbidities. Conclusions: We found little association between measures currently used to assess the quality of dialysis care and PROs. Encouraging improved utilization of PROs and incorporating PROs into quality measurements might give a more robust assessment of quality of care. Future studies should assess the benefits of this approach.

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          Most cited references 22

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          The urea reduction ratio and serum albumin concentration as predictors of mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

          Among patients with end-stage renal disease who are treated with hemodialysis, solute clearance during dialysis and nutritional adequacy are determinants of mortality. We determined the effects of reductions in blood urea nitrogen concentrations during dialysis and changes in serum albumin concentrations, as an indicator of nutritional status, on mortality in a large group of patients treated with hemodialysis. We analyzed retrospectively the demographic characteristics, mortality rate, duration of hemodialysis, serum albumin concentration, and urea reduction ratio (defined as the percent reduction in blood urea nitrogen concentration during a single dialysis treatment) in 13,473 patients treated from October 1, 1990, through March 31, 1991. The risk of death was determined as a function of the urea reduction ratio and serum albumin concentration. As compared with patients with urea reduction ratios of 65 to 69 percent, patients with values below 60 percent had a higher risk of death during follow-up (odds ratio, 1.28 for urea reduction ratios of 55 to 59 percent and 1.39 for ratios below 55 percent). Fifty-five percent of the patients had urea reduction ratios below 60 percent. The duration of dialysis was not predictive of mortality. The serum albumin concentration was a more powerful (21 times greater) predictor of death than the urea reduction ratio, and 60 percent of the patients had serum albumin concentrations predictive of an increased risk of death (values below 4.0 g per deciliter). The odds ratio for death was 1.48 for serum albumin concentrations of 3.5 to 3.9 g per deciliter and 3.13 for concentrations of 3.0 to 3.4 g per deciliter. Diabetic patients had lower serum albumin concentrations and urea reduction ratios than nondiabetic patients. Low urea reduction ratios during dialysis are associated with increased odds ratios for death. These risks are worsened by inadequate nutrition.
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            Symptom burden, depression, and quality of life in chronic and end-stage kidney disease.

            While many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have impaired physical and psychologic well-being, less is known about these health domains in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). The authors sought to compare symptoms, depression, and quality of life in patients with ESRD and those with CKD. Patients with ESRD and subjects with advanced CKD were enrolled. Patients' symptoms, depression, and quality of life were assessed using the Dialysis Symptom Index (DSI), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and Short Form 36 (SF-36), respectively, and these health domains were compared between patient groups. Ninety patients with ESRD and 87 with CKD were enrolled. There were no differences in the overall number of symptoms or in the total DSI symptom-severity score. Median scores on the PHQ-9 were similar, as was the proportion of patients with PHQ-9 scores >9. SF-36 Physical Component Summary scores were comparable, as were SF-36 Mental Component Summary scores. The burden of symptoms, prevalence of depression, and low quality of life are comparable in patients with ESRD and advanced CKD. Given the widely recognized impairments in these domains in ESRD, findings of this study underscore the substantial decrements in the physical and psychologic well-being of patients with CKD.
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              Minimally important differences were estimated for six Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System-Cancer scales in advanced-stage cancer patients.

              We combined anchor- and distribution-based methods to establish minimally important differences (MIDs) for six Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)-Cancer scales in advanced-stage cancer patients. Participants completed 6 PROMIS-Cancer scales and 23 anchor measures at an initial (n=101) assessment and a follow-up (n=88) assessment 6-12 weeks later. Three a priori criteria were used to identify usable cross-sectional and longitudinal anchor-based MID estimates. The mean standard error of measurement was also computed for each scale. The focus of the analysis was on item response theory-based MIDs estimated on a T-score scale. Raw score MIDs were estimated for comparison purposes. Many cross-sectional (64%) and longitudinal (73%) T-score anchor-based MID estimates were excluded because they did not meet a priori criteria. The following are the recommended T-score MID ranges: 17-item Fatigue (2.5-4.5), 7-item Fatigue (3.0-5.0), 10-item Pain Interference (4.0-6.0), 10-item Physical Functioning (4.0-6.0), 9-item Emotional Distress-Anxiety (3.0-4.5), and 10-item Emotional Distress-Depression (3.0-4.5). Effect sizes corresponding to these MIDs averaged between 0.40 and 0.63. This study is the first to address MIDs for PROMIS measures. Studies are currently being conducted to confirm these MIDs in other patient populations and to determine whether these MIDs vary by patients' level of functioning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Diseases
                S. Karger AG
                September 2020
                10 July 2020
                : 6
                : 5
                : 364-370
                aDivision of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
                bCenter for Advancing Population Science, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
                Author notes
                *Daniel A. Sturgill, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee WI 53226 (USA),
                508919 Kidney Dis 2020;6:364–370
                © 2020 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Pages: 7
                Research Article

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                PROMIS, Function, Patient-reported outcome, Dialysis, Fatigue


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