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      Keeping time without a spine: what can the insect clock teach us about seasonal adaptation?

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          Climate change. Evolutionary response to rapid climate change.

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            Regulation of diapause.

            Environmental and hormonal regulators of diapause have been reasonably well defined, but our understanding of the molecular regulation of diapause remains in its infancy. Though many genes are shut down during diapause, others are specifically expressed at this time. Classes of diapause-upregulated genes can be distinguished based on their expression patterns: Some are upregulated throughout diapause, and others are expressed only in early diapause, late diapause, or intermittently throughout diapause. The termination of diapause is accompanied by a rapid decline in expression of the diapause-upregulated genes and, conversely, an elevation in expression of many genes that were downregulated during diapause. A comparison of insect diapause with other forms of dormancy in plants and animals suggests that upregulation of a subset of heat shock protein genes may be one feature common to different types of dormancies.
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              The monarch butterfly genome yields insights into long-distance migration.

              We present the draft 273 Mb genome of the migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) and a set of 16,866 protein-coding genes. Orthology properties suggest that the Lepidoptera are the fastest evolving insect order yet examined. Compared to the silkmoth Bombyx mori, the monarch genome shares prominent similarity in orthology content, microsynteny, and protein family sizes. The monarch genome reveals a vertebrate-like opsin whose existence in insects is widespread; a full repertoire of molecular components for the monarch circadian clockwork; all members of the juvenile hormone biosynthetic pathway whose regulation shows unexpected sexual dimorphism; additional molecular signatures of oriented flight behavior; microRNAs that are differentially expressed between summer and migratory butterflies; monarch-specific expansions of chemoreceptors potentially important for long-distance migration; and a variant of the sodium/potassium pump that underlies a valuable chemical defense mechanism. The monarch genome enhances our ability to better understand the genetic and molecular basis of long-distance migration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
                Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B
                The Royal Society
                0962-8436
                1471-2970
                October 09 2017
                October 09 2017
                : 372
                : 1734
                : 20160257
                10.1098/rstb.2016.0257
                © 2017

                http://royalsocietypublishing.org/licence

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