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      Blockade of TREM-2 exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

      European Journal of Immunology

      Animals, Blotting, Northern, Brain, immunology, metabolism, pathology, Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental, Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Macrophages, Membrane Glycoproteins, Mice, Microglia, RNA, Messenger, analysis, Receptors, Immunologic, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, Spinal Cord, Up-Regulation

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          Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM-2) is a membrane receptor associated with DAP12 that is expressed primarily in myeloid cells, including dendritic cells and microglia, and promotes fusion of osteoclast precursors into multinucleated cells. A rare autosomal recessive condition, Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD) is associated with loss-of-function mutations in DAP12 and TREM-2. The brain pathology observed in NHD patients suggests that disruption of the TREM-2/DAP12 pathway leads to neurodegeneration with demyelination and axonal loss. In this study, we have characterized TREM-2 protein expression on microglia using a newly produced monoclonal antibody directed against the mouse TREM-2 receptor. We report that TREM-2 expression is up-regulated in the spinal cord during both the early inflammatory and chronic phases of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)(35-55)peptide-induced experimental autoimmune encaphalomyelitis (EAE). We also demonstrate that TREM-2 is highly expressed on microglial cells in the central nervous system (CNS) during EAE and that blockade of TREM-2 during the effector phase of EAE results in disease exacerbation with more diffuse CNS inflammatory infiltrates and demyelination in the brain parenchyma. These results demonstrate a critical role for TREM-2 during inflammatory responses in the CNS.

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