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      Laparoscopic pelvic organ suspension with mesh: a modified technique and primary results Translated title: Suspensão laparoscópica de órgão pélvico com malha: uma técnica modificada e resultados primários

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          Abstract

          Abstract Background Pelvic organ prolapse recurrence rate is an important issue which impacts the patient's quality of life and results in a new surgical procedure. We use a new technique of laparoscopic pelvic organ suspension (rectal suspension) for pelvic organ prolapse treatment in our center. We evaluated the results of this technique, three months after surgery and at the time of study reporting. Methods All patients with pelvic organ prolapse for whom laparoscopic pelvic organ prolapse had been done were evaluated. Data were collected from the patient's charts and their short term follow up 3 months after the surgery and their last follow up visit. Demographic, history, physical examination, Wexner's fecal incontinence score and Altomare's Obstructed Defecation Syndrome score, post-operation complications and patient's satisfaction were analyzed, retrospectively. Results All patients were female with a mean age of 57 ± 11.43 years (range 32-86 years). Mean BMI was 26.1 ± 3.73. Nine patients had rectal bleeding (31%), 18 had prolonged or difficult defecation (62%), 16 had rectal prolapse (55.2%), 11 had gas incontinence (37.9%), 9 had liquid stool incontinence (31%), 5 had stool incontinence (17.2%), 9 had vaginal prolapse (31%), 23 had constipation (79.3%), 9 complaint of pelvic pain (31%), 9 had urge or stress urinary incontinence (31%) and 13 had dyspareunia (44.8%). Conclusions In conclusion, we believe this procedure has good results in short term follow up (3 months after surgery), but a high recurrence rate in the middle term follow up. Therefore, this procedure is no longer recommended.

          Translated abstract

          Resumo Introdução A taxa de recorrência do prolapso de órgãos pélvicos é uma questão importante que afeta a qualidade de vida do paciente, resultando em um novo procedimento cirúrgico. Os autores adotaram uma nova técnica de suspensão laparoscópica de órgãos pélvicos (suspensão retal) no tratamento de prolapso de órgãos pélvicos. Os resultados dessa técnica foram avaliados três meses após a cirurgia e no momento do relato do estudo. Métodos Todos os pacientes com prolapso de órgão pélvico submetidos a suspensão laparoscópica foram avaliados. Os dados foram coletados do prontuário do paciente, na visita de acompanhamento três meses após a cirurgia e na última visita de acompanhamento. Os dados demográficos, histórico médico, avaliação física, escore de incontinência fecal de Wexner, escore da síndrome da defecação obstruída de Altomare, complicações pós-operatórias e satisfação do paciente foram analisados retrospectivamente. Resultados Todos os pacientes eram do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 57 ± 11,43 anos (variação de 32 a 86 anos). O índice de massa corporal médio foi de 26,1 ± 3,73. Nove (31%) pacientes apresentaram sangramento retal; 18 (62%), defecação prolongada ou difícil; 16 (55,2%), prolapso retal; 11 (37,9%), incontinência gasosa; nove (31%), incontinência fecal líquida, cinco (17,2%), incontinência fecal; nove (31%), prolapso vaginal; 23 (79,3%), constipação; nove (31%), queixa de dor pélvica; nove (31%), incontinência urinária de urgência ou esforço e 13 (44,8%), dispareunia. Conclusões Os autores acreditam que este procedimento apresenta bons resultados no seguimento de curto prazo (três meses após a cirurgia), mas uma alta taxa de recorrência no acompanhamento a médio prazo. Portanto, esse procedimento não é mais recomendado.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Epidemiology and outcome assessment of pelvic organ prolapse.

          The aim was to determine the incidence and prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse surgery and describe how outcomes are reported. Every 4 years and as part of the Fifth International Collaboration on Incontinence we reviewed the English-language scientific literature after searching PubMed, Medline, Cochrane library and Cochrane database of systematic reviews, published up to January 2012. Publications were classified as level 1 evidence (randomised controlled trials [RCT] or systematic reviews, level 2 (poor quality RCT, prospective cohort studies), level 3 (case series or retrospective studies) and level 4 (case reports). The highest level of evidence was utilised by the committee to make evidence-based recommendations based upon the Oxford grading system. A grade A recommendation usually depends on consistent level 1 evidence. A grade B recommendation usually depends on consistent level 2 and/or 3 studies, or "majority evidence" from RCTs. A grade C recommendation usually depends on level 4 studies or "majority evidence" from level 2/3 studies or Delphi processed expert opinion. A grade D "no recommendation possible" would be used where the evidence is inadequate or conflicting and when expert opinion is delivered without a formal analytical process, such as by Delphi . Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) when defined by symptoms has a prevalence of 3-6% and up to 50% when based upon vaginal examination. Surgery for prolapse is performed twice as commonly as continence surgery and prevalence varies widely from 6 to 18%. The incidence of POP surgery ranges from 1.5 to 1.8 per 1,000 women years and peaks in women aged 60-69. When reporting outcomes of the surgical management of prolapse, authors should include a variety of standardised anatomical and functional outcomes. Anatomical outcomes reported should include all POP-Q points and staging, utilising a traditional definition of success with the hymen as the threshold for success. Assessment should be prospective and assessors blinded as to the surgical intervention performed if possible and without any conflict of interest related to the assessment undertaken (grade C). Subjective success postoperatively should be defined as the absence of a vaginal bulge (grade C). Functional outcomes are best reported using valid, reliable and responsive symptom questionnaires and condition-specific HRQOL instruments (grade C). Sexual function is best reported utilising validated condition-specific HRQOL that assess sexual function or validated sexual function questionnaires such as the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ) or the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The sexual activity status of all study participants should be reported pre- and postoperatively under the following categories: sexually active without pain, sexually active with pain or not sexually active (grade C). Prolapse surgery should be defined as primary surgery, and repeat surgery sub-classified as primary surgery different site, repeat surgery, complications related to surgery and surgery for non-prolapse-related conditions (grade C). Significant variation exists in the prevalence and incidence of pelvic organ prolapse surgery and how the outcomes are reported. Much of the variation may be improved by standardisation of definitions and outcomes of reporting on pelvic organ prolapse surgery.
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            Nonobstetric risk factors for symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse.

            To identify possible nonobstetric risk factors for symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse in the general female population. This was a population-based, cross-sectional study derived from a sample of 5,489 Stockholm women, 30 to 79 years old, who answered a validated questionnaire for the identification of symptomatic prolapse. The 454 women whose answers indicated the presence of such prolapse and the 405 randomly selected control participants with answers that gave no indication of prolapse received a 72-item questionnaire, which probed into a priori suspected risk factors. Only those women with intact uteri and no prior surgery for incontinence or prolapse were included. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated prevalence odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In addition to age and parity, overweight (prevalence OR for body mass index [kg/m] 26-30 compared with 19-25 was 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.1), history of conditions suggestive of deficient connective tissue (varicose veins/hernia/hemorrhoids, prevalence OR for positive history compared with no history 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.8), family history of prolapse (prevalence OR for positive history compared with no history 3.3, 95% CI 1.7-6.4), heavy lifting at work (prevalence OR for 10 kg or more compared with no heavy lifting 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.6), and presence of constipation, hard stools, or difficult evacuation (prevalence OR relative to normal bowel habits 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.3) all were linked independently, significantly, and positively to the presence of symptomatic prolapse. In this nonconsulting population, age and parity were the dominating risk factors, but significant independent associations with markers suggestive of congenital susceptibility (family history and conditions signaling weak connective tissue) and nonobstetric strain on the pelvic floor (overweight/obesity, heavy lifting, and constipation) imply that individual predisposition and lifestyle/environment also may play an important role. The causal direction of the association with bowel habits remains uncertain, and the link to family history could be partly because of information bias.
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              An estimation of the frequency of surgery for posthysterectomy vault prolapse.

              We tried to estimate the frequency of surgery for posthysterectomy vault prolapse. We contacted all 86 departments of gynecology in Austria and asked them about total number of hysterectomies and total number of operations for vault prolapse. We then calculated a percentage of patients undergoing surgery for posthysterectomy vault prolapse. Sixty-five of 86 public hospitals replied (response rate 76%) and reported a total of 7,645 hysterectomies and 577 operations for vault prolapse for the year 2005, giving a percentage of 7.16 for surgery for posthysterectomy vault prolapse. On the assumption that vault prolapse takes on the average 10 years to develop and that the number of hysterectomies decreased by 10% over 10 years, we calculated a modified frequency of 6.52%. We were able to calculate an estimation of the frequency for posthysterectomy vault prolapse requiring surgical repair between 6% and 8%.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                jcol
                Journal of Coloproctology (Rio de Janeiro)
                J. Coloproctol. (Rio J.)
                Sociedade Brasileira de Coloproctologia (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil )
                2237-9363
                2317-6423
                December 2019
                : 39
                : 4
                : 326-331
                Affiliations
                Shiraz orgnameColorectal Research Center orgdiv1Shiraz University of Medical Sciences Iran
                Article
                S2237-93632019000400326 S2237-9363(19)03900400326
                10.1016/j.jcol.2019.07.002

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 24, Pages: 6
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