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      Manifestations of Oxidant Stress in Uremia

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      Blood Purification

      S. Karger AG

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          Most cited references 5

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          Metal ion-catalyzed oxidation of proteins: Biochemical mechanism and biological consequences

           Earl Stadtman (1990)
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            Chlorination of tyrosyl residues in peptides by myeloperoxidase and human neutrophils.

            Hypochlorous acid is the major strong oxidant generated by human neutrophils, and it has the potential to cause much of the tissue damage that these inflammatory cells promote. It is produced from hydrogen peroxide and chloride by the heme enzyme myeloperoxidase. To unequivocally establish that hypochlorous acid contributes to inflammation, a stable and unique marker for its reaction with biomolecules needs to be identified. In this investigation we have found that reagent hypochlorous acid reacts with tyrosyl residues in small peptides and converts them to chlorotyrosine. Purified myeloperoxidase in combination with hydrogen peroxide and chloride, as well as stimulated human neutrophils, chlorinated tyrosine in the peptide Gly-Gly-Tyr-Arg. Rather than reacting directly with the aromatic ring of tyrosine, hypochlorous acid initially reacted with an amine group of the peptide to form a chloramine. The chloramine then underwent an intramolecular reaction with the tyrosyl residue to convert it to chlorotyrosine. This indicates that tyrosyl residues in proteins that are close to amine groups will be susceptible to chlorination. Peroxidases are the only enzymes capable of chlorinating an aromatic ring. Furthermore, myeloperoxidase is the only human enzyme that produces hypochlorous acid under physiological conditions. Therefore, chlorotyrosine will be a specific marker for the production of hypochlorous acid in vivo and for the involvement of myeloperoxidase in inflammatory tissue damage.
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              An Overview of Haemodialysis and Oxidant Stress

              Today’s patient population is increasingly older. Patients with chronic renal failure therefore start extracorporeal substitutive treatment having congestive heart failure, chronic liver disease, diabetes and so forth. In these patients, however, long-term haemodialytic treatment may add further aggravation on their pre-existing pathological conditions. Oxidative stress and alterations in lipid metabolism are caused by haemodialysis mainly due to (1) bioincompatibility type of reactions such as production of reactive oxygen species by inflammatory cells due to complement-mediated or -independent pathways, and (2) the imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants due to the diffusive loss of hydrophilic vitamins such as ascorbic acid. The events related to the oxidant stress may sustain a state of chronic inflammation. Recent advances suggest that atherosclerosis and proliferation of the smooth muscle are initiated and sustained by inflammatory mechanisms. Therefore, attempts to counterbalance the prooxidant effect of haemodialysis and to reduce the chronic inflammatory state will be presented.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7186-9
                978-3-318-00668-1
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2001
                2001
                28 December 2000
                : 19
                : 2
                : 200-205
                Affiliations
                Division of Nephrology, Maine Medical Center, Portland, Me., USA
                Article
                46941 Blood Purif 2001;19:200–205
                10.1159/000046941
                11150810
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 6
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/46941
                Categories
                Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

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