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      A C-Terminal Coiled-Coil Region of CagL is Responsible for Helicobacter Pylori-Induced Il-8 Expression

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          Abstract

          Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent neutrophil-activating chemokine which triggers the infiltration and migration of neutrophils into areas of bacterial infection. Helicobacter pylori-infected patient studies as well as animal models have revealed that H. pylori type I strains carrying an intact cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island ( cag-PAI) with a functional type IV secretion system (T4SS) induce IL-8 expression and secretion in gastric mucosa. This gastric mucosal IL-8 expression correlates with severe histological changes due to H. pylori infection.

          In the present study, we explored a new recognition pattern on the bacterial adhesion protein CagL inducing IL-8 expression in H. pylori-infected host cells. To analyze the secreted IL-8 concentration, we performed IL-8 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To investigate the H. pylori-induced IL-8 expression on the transcriptional level, we transiently transfected gastric epithelial cells (AGS) with a human IL-8 luciferase reporter construct.

          The results of this study demonstrate that specifically the C-terminal coiled-coil region of the H. pylori CagL protein, a protein described to be located on the tip of the T4SS-pilus, is responsible for several in vitro observations: 1) H. pylori-induced IL-8 secretion via the transforming growth factor (TGF)-α activated epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R) signaling pathway; 2) H. pylori-induced elongation of the cells, a typical CagA-induced phenotype; and 3) the bridging of the T4SS to its human target cells. This novel bacterial-host recognition sequence allows a new insight into how H. pylori induces the inflammatory response in gastric epithelial cells and facilitates the development of precancerous conditions.

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          Most cited references 56

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          Integrin-regulated FAK-Src signaling in normal and cancer cells.

          Integrins can alter cellular behavior through the recruitment and activation of signaling proteins such as non-receptor tyrosine kinases including focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and c-Src that form a dual kinase complex. The FAK-Src complex binds to and can phosphorylate various adaptor proteins such as p130Cas and paxillin. In normal cells, multiple integrin-regulated linkages exist to activate FAK or Src. Activated FAK-Src functions to promote cell motility, cell cycle progression and cell survival. Recent studies have found that the FAK-Src complex is activated in many tumor cells and generates signals leading to tumor growth and metastasis. As both FAK and Src catalytic activities are important in promoting VEGF-associated tumor angiogenesis and protease-associated tumor metastasis, support is growing that FAK and Src may be therapeutically relevant targets in the inhibition of tumor progression.
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            Nod1 responds to peptidoglycan delivered by the Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island.

            Epithelial cells can respond to conserved bacterial products that are internalized after either bacterial invasion or liposome treatment of cells. We report here that the noninvasive Gram-negative pathogen Helicobacter pylori was recognized by epithelial cells via Nod1, an intracellular pathogen-recognition molecule with specificity for Gram-negative peptidoglycan. Nod1 detection of H. pylori depended on the delivery of peptidoglycan to host cells by a bacterial type IV secretion system, encoded by the H. pylori cag pathogenicity island. Consistent with involvement of Nod1 in host defense, Nod1-deficient mice were more susceptible to infection by cag pathogenicity island-positive H. pylori than were wild-type mice. We propose that sensing of H. pylori by Nod1 represents a model for host recognition of noninvasive pathogens.
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              Helicobacter pylori SabA adhesin in persistent infection and chronic inflammation.

              Helicobacter pylori adherence in the human gastric mucosa involves specific bacterial adhesins and cognate host receptors. Here, we identify sialyl-dimeric-Lewis x glycosphingolipid as a receptor for H. pylori and show that H. pylori infection induced formation of sialyl-Lewis x antigens in gastric epithelium in humans and in a Rhesus monkey. The corresponding sialic acid-binding adhesin (SabA) was isolated with the "retagging" method, and the underlying sabA gene (JHP662/HP0725) was identified. The ability of many H. pylori strains to adhere to sialylated glycoconjugates expressed during chronic inflammation might thus contribute to virulence and the extraordinary chronicity of H. pylori infection.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                EUJMI
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                19 July 2016
                29 September 2016
                : 6
                : 3
                : 186-196
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute for Diabetes and Cancer , Neuherberg, Germany
                [2 ]Max-von-Pettenkofer-Institute for Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Ludwig Maximilians University , Munich, Germany
                [3 ]Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority, Veterinaerstrasse 2 , D-85764 Oberschleissheim, Germany
                Author notes
                * Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany; +49 89-3187 3848; tobias.wiedemann@ 123456helmholtz-muenchen.de

                Conflicts of interest

                The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                10.1556/1886.2016.00020
                5063011
                © The Author(s)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 58, Pages: 11
                Funding
                Funding sources This work was supported by grants from the German Research Foundation (RI 972/3-1) and Förderprogramm für Forschung und Lehre (FöFoLe) (50/2007) to GR.
                Categories
                Original Article

                coiled-coil, cagl, il-8, helicobacter pylori

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