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      Smoking – A Renal Risk Factor

      Nephron

      S. Karger AG

      Smoking, Renal failure, Diabetic nephropathy, Hypertension, Endothelin, Primary renal disease

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          Abstract

          One of the most important tasks of clinical and experimental nephrology is to identify the risk factors of progression of renal failure. A major renal risk factor which has not been sufficiently acknowledged despite increasing evidence is cigarette smoking. Diabetologists were the first to recognize the adverse effects of smoking on the kidney: both in type 1 and in type 2 diabetes smoking (i) increases the risk of development of nephropathy and (ii) nearly doubles the rate of progression to end-stage renal failure. Until recently it was not known whether smoking also increases the risk to progress to end-stage renal failure in patients with primary renal disease. A retrospective multicenter European case-control study showed that smoking is an independent risk factor for end-stage renal failure in patients with inflammatory and noninflammatory renal disease, i.e. IgA glomerulonephritis and polycystic kidney disease. The pathogenesis of the smoking-related renal damage is largely unknown. The intermittent increase in blood pressure during smoking seems to play a major role in causing renal damage, but further potential pathomechanisms are presumably also operative. Smoking as a renal risk factor is of great interest to diabetologists as well as nephrologists, but unfortunately so far this information has had little impact on patient management. The present article reviews the current knowledge about the renal risks of smoking and discusses the potential mechanisms of smoking-mediated renal injury.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Blood pressure and end-stage renal disease in men.

          End-stage renal disease in the United States creates a large burden for both individuals and society as a whole. Efforts to prevent the condition require an understanding of modifiable risk factors. We assessed the development of end-stage renal disease through 1990 in 332,544 men, 35 to 57 years of age, who were screened between 1973 and 1975 for entry into the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). We used data from the national registry for treated end-stage renal disease of the Health Care Financing Administration and from records on death from renal disease from the National Death Index and the Social Security Administration. During an average of 16 years of follow-up, 814 subjects either died of end-stage renal disease or were treated for that condition (15.6 cases per 100,000 person-years of observation). A strong, graded relation between both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and end-stage renal disease was identified, independent of associations between the disease and age, race, income, use of medication for diabetes mellitus, history of myocardial infarction, serum cholesterol concentration, and cigarette smoking. As compared with men with an optimal level of blood pressure (systolic pressure or = 210 mm Hg or diastolic pressure > or = 120 mm Hg) was 22.1 (P < 0.001). These relations were not due to end-stage renal disease that occurred soon after screening and, in the 12,866 screened men who entered the MRFIT study, were not changed by taking into account the base-line serum creatinine concentration and urinary protein excretion. The estimated risk of end-stage renal disease associated with elevations of systolic pressure was greater than that linked with elevations of diastolic pressure when both variables were considered together. Elevations of blood pressure are a strong independent risk factor for end-stage renal disease; interventions to prevent the disease need to emphasize the prevention and control of both high-normal and high blood pressure.
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            Pathophysiology of progressive nephropathies.

             T Bertani,  G. Remuzzi (1998)
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              Passive smoking and impaired endothelium-dependent arterial dilatation in healthy young adults.

              Passive smoking has been linked to an increased risk of dying from atherosclerotic heart disease. Since endothelial dysfunction is an early feature of atherogenesis and occurs in young adults who actively smoke cigarettes, we hypothesized that passive smoking might also be associated with endothelial damage in healthy young-adult nonsmokers. We studied 78 healthy subjects (39 men and 39 women) 15 to 30 years of age (mean +/- SD, 22 +/- 4): 26 control subjects who had never smoked or had regular exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, 26 who had never smoked but had been exposed to environmental tobacco smoke for at least one hour daily for three or more years, and 26 active smokers. Using ultrasonography, we measured the brachial-artery diameter under base-line conditions, during reactive hyperemia (with flow increase causing endothelium-dependent dilatation), and after sublingual administration of nitroglycerin (an endothelium-independent dilator). Flow-mediated dilatation was observed in all control subjects (8.2 +/- 3.1 percent; range, 2.1 to 16.7) but was significantly impaired in the passive smokers (3.1 +/- 2.7 percent; range, 0 to 9; P < 0.001 for the comparison with the controls) and in the active smokers (4.4 +/- 3.1 percent; range, 0 to 10; P < 0.001 for the comparison with the controls; P = 0.48 for the comparison with the passive smokers). In the passive smokers, there was an inverse relation between the intensity of exposure to tobacco smoke and flow-mediated dilatation (r = -0.67, P < 0.001). In contrast, dilatation induced by nitroglycerin was similar in all groups. Passive smoking is associated with dose-related impairment of endothelium-dependent dilatation in healthy young adults, suggesting early arterial damage.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                2000
                September 2000
                30 August 2000
                : 86
                : 1
                : 12-26
                Affiliations
                Department of Internal Medicine, Ruperto Carola University, Heidelberg, Germany
                Article
                45708 Nephron 2000;86:12–26
                10.1159/000045708
                10971149
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 4, References: 145, Pages: 15
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/45708
                Categories
                Nephrology Grand Rounds. Clinical Issues in Nephrology<br>Section Editors: E. Ritz and M. Zeier, Heidelberg

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