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      Acetogenins from Annona muricata as potential inhibitors of antiapoptotic proteins: a molecular modeling study

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          Abstract

          Apoptosis is a highly regulated process crucial for maintaining cellular homeostasis and development. The B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family of proteins play a crucial role in regulating apoptosis. Overexpressed Bcl-2 proteins are associated with the development and progression of several human cancers. Annona muricata is a tropical plant that belongs to the Annonaceae family and is well known for its anticancer properties. In this study, molecular docking and simulations were performed to investigate the inhibitory potential of phytochemicals present in A. muricata against antiapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family including Bcl-2, B-cell lymphoma extra-large (Bcl-Xl), and Mcl-1. Docking results revealed that the acetogenins, such as annomuricin A, annohexocin, muricatocin A, annomuricin-D-one, and muricatetrocin A/B, exhibited strong binding interactions with Bcl-Xl when compared to Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. Binding score and interactions of these acetogenins were notably better than those of currently available synthetic and natural inhibitors. Molecular dynamics simulations of the top-scoring lead molecules established that these molecules could bind strongly and consistently in the active site of Bcl-Xl. These results suggest that acetogenins could be explored as selective natural inhibitors of Bcl-Xl that could assist in promoting the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis.

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          Most cited references 56

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          Integrated Modeling Program, Applied Chemical Theory (IMPACT).

          We provide an overview of the IMPACT molecular mechanics program with an emphasis on recent developments and a description of its current functionality. With respect to core molecular mechanics technologies we include a status report for the fixed charge and polarizable force fields that can be used with the program and illustrate how the force fields, when used together with new atom typing and parameter assignment modules, have greatly expanded the coverage of organic compounds and medicinally relevant ligands. As we discuss in this review, explicit solvent simulations have been used to guide our design of implicit solvent models based on the generalized Born framework and a novel nonpolar estimator that have recently been incorporated into the program. With IMPACT it is possible to use several different advanced conformational sampling algorithms based on combining features of molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. The program includes two specialized molecular mechanics modules: Glide, a high-throughput docking program, and QSite, a mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics module. These modules employ the IMPACT infrastructure as a starting point for the construction of the protein model and assignment of molecular mechanics parameters, but have then been developed to meet specialized objectives with respect to sampling and the energy function. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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            Bcl-2 family proteins and cancer.

            BCL-2 was the first anti-death gene discovered, a milestone with far reaching implications for tumor biology. Multiple members of the human Bcl-2 family of apoptosis-regulating proteins have been identified, including six antiapoptotic, three structurally similar proapoptotic proteins and several structurally diverse proapoptotic interacting proteins that operate as upstream agonists or antagonists. These proteins, in turn, are regulated through myriad post-translational modifications and interactions with other proteins. Bcl-2-family proteins regulate all major types of cell death, including apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy, thus operating as nodal points at the convergence of multiple pathways with broad relevance to oncology. Experimental therapies targeting Bcl-2-family mRNAs or proteins are currently in clinical testing, raising hopes that a new class of anticancer drugs may soon be available.
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              Apoptosis in cancer.

              In the last decade, basic cancer research has produced remarkable advances in our understanding of cancer biology and cancer genetics. Among the most important of these advances is the realization that apoptosis and the genes that control it have a profound effect on the malignant phenotype. For example, it is now clear that some oncogenic mutations disrupt apoptosis, leading to tumor initiation, progression or metastasis. Conversely, compelling evidence indicates that other oncogenic changes promote apoptosis, thereby producing selective pressure to override apoptosis during multistage carcinogenesis. Finally, it is now well documented that most cytotoxic anticancer agents induce apoptosis, raising the intriguing possibility that defects in apoptotic programs contribute to treatment failure. Because the same mutations that suppress apoptosis during tumor development also reduce treatment sensitivity, apoptosis provides a conceptual framework to link cancer genetics with cancer therapy. An intense research effort is uncovering the underlying mechanisms of apoptosis such that, in the next decade, one envisions that this information will produce new strategies to exploit apoptosis for therapeutic benefit.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2016
                13 April 2016
                : 10
                : 1399-1410
                Affiliations
                Department of Biology, College of Science, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ranjit Vijayan, Department of Biology, College of Science, United Arab Emirates University, PO Box 15551, Al Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, Tel +971 3 713 6302, Email ranjit.v@ 123456uaeu.ac.ae
                Article
                dddt-10-1399
                10.2147/DDDT.S103216
                4835113
                27110097
                © 2016 Antony and Vijayan. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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