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      Hepatitis B Core Antigen Impairs the Polarization While Promoting the Production of Inflammatory Cytokines of M2 Macrophages via the TLR2 Pathway

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          Abstract

          Although several evidences suggesting the vital roles that innate immunity plays in the persistence and elimination of chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infection, the exact mechanism is still complicated. Here, we successfully polarized monocytes derived from healthy human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) into M1/M2 macrophages and detected the effects of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) on the polarization and function of macrophages via the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 signaling pathway. The results showed that HBcAg had a negligible impact on M1 polarization, while it effectively impaired M2 polarization and promoted the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α. Additionally, HBcAg treatment increased TLR2 expression on M2 macrophages and TLR2 blockade abolished the effects of HBcAg on the impaired phenotype and pro-inflammatory cytokine productions of M2 macrophages. Signaling pathway analysis revealed that the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway, the downstream of TLR2, was upregulated upon HBcAg treatment in both M1 and M2 macrophages. Furthermore, a CD8 + T-macrophage coculture system implied that compared with PBS stimulation, HBcAg-stimulated M2 macrophages regained their ability to activate CD8 + T cells with higher secretion of IFN-γ. Finally, we found impaired expression of M2-related molecules and increased levels of pro-inflammation cytokines in M2 macrophages from CHB patients upon HBcAg stimulation. In conclusion, these results imply a favorable role of HBcAg in the establishment of a pro-inflammatory microenvironment by macrophages, which may suggest a potential therapeutic strategy of HBcAg-induced macrophage activation in CHB infection.

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          Polarization profiles of human M-CSF-generated macrophages and comparison of M1-markers in classically activated macrophages from GM-CSF and M-CSF origin.

          Monocytes/macrophages (MΦ), considered as plastic cells, can differentiate into either a pro-inflammatory (M1) subtype, also known as a classically activated subtype, or an anti-inflammatory alternatively activated subtype (M2) according to their microenvironment. Phenotypic markers of mouse polarized MΦ have been extensively studied, whereas their human counterparts remain less characterized. The main goal of this study was therefore to carefully characterize phenotypic and genomic markers of primary human MΦ generated from M-CSF-treated blood monocytes and polarized towards M1 or M2 subtype upon the action of lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ (for M1) or interleukin (IL)-4 (for M2). Membrane expression of the markers CD80 and CD200R was found to be specific of human M1 and M2 polarized MΦ, respectively, whereas, by contrast, mannose receptor (CD206) expression did not discriminate between M1 and M2. mRNA expression analysis further identified six markers of M1 polarization (IL-12p35, CXCL10, CXCL11, CCL5, CCR7 and IDO1), five markers of M2 polarization (TGF-β, CCL14, CCL22, SR-B1 and PPARγ) and transcription factors involved in MΦ polarization. Ability of human M-CSF-generated MΦ to polarize toward M1 or M2 subtype was also associated with enhanced secretion of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-12p40, CXCL10 and IL-10 (for M1) or CCL22 (for M2). Moreover, the comparison of the expression of M1 markers in M-CSF- and GM-CSF-MΦ polarized towards M1 subtype has revealed similarities. In conclusion, we demonstrated that human M-CSF MΦ can polarize toward a M1 type after IFNγ/LPS stimulation. Moreover, the M1 and M2 markers of human polarized MΦ identified in the present study may be useful to better identify human MΦ subtypes, particularly at the tissue level, in order to better understand their respective roles in the development of pathologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Human macrophage polarization in vitro: maturation and activation methods compared.

            Macrophages form a heterogeneous cell population displaying multiple functions, and can be polarized into pro- (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages, by environmental factors. Their activation status reflects a beneficial or detrimental role in various diseases. Currently several in vitro maturation and activation protocols are used to induce an M1 or M2 phenotype. Here, the impact of different maturation factors (NHS, M-CSF, or GM-CSF) and activation methods (IFN-γ/LPS, IL-4, dexamethason, IL-10) on the macrophage phenotype was determined. Regarding macrophage morphology, pro-inflammatory (M1) activation stimulated cell elongation, and anti-inflammatory (M2) activation induced a circular appearance. Activation with pro-inflammatory mediators led to increased CD40 and CD64 expression, whereas activation with anti-inflammatory factors resulted in increased levels of MR and CD163. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was induced by activation with IFN-γ/LPS, and TGF-β production was enhanced by the maturation factors M-CSF and GM-CSF. Our data demonstrate that macrophage marker expression and cytokine production in vitro is highly dependent on both maturation and activation methods. In vivo macrophage activation is far more complex, since a plethora of stimuli are present. Hence, defining the macrophage activation status ex vivo on a limited number of markers could be indecisive. From this study we conclude that maturation with M-CSF or GM-CSF induces a moderate anti- or pro-inflammatory state respectively, compared to maturation with NHS. CD40 and CD64 are the most distinctive makers for human M1 and CD163 and MR for M2 macrophage activation and therefore can be helpful in determining the activation status of human macrophages ex vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
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              Antiviral signaling through pattern recognition receptors.

              Viral infection is detected by the host innate immune system. Innate immune cells such as dendritic cells and macrophages detect nucleic acids derived from viruses through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Viral recognition by PRRs initiates the activation of signaling pathways that lead to production of type I interferon and inflammatory cytokines, which are important for the elimination of viruses. Two types of PRRs that recognize viral nucleic acids, Toll-like receptors (TLR) and RIG-I-like RNA helicases (RLH), have been identified. Of the TLRs, TLR3 recognizes viral double-stranded (ds) RNA, TLR7 and human TLR8 identify viral single-stranded (ss) RNA and TLR9 detects viral DNA. TLRs are located in endosomal compartments, whereas RLH are present in the cytoplasm where they detect viral dsRNA or ssRNA. Here we review the role of TLRs and RLHs in the antiviral innate immune response.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Immunol
                Front Immunol
                Front. Immunol.
                Frontiers in Immunology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-3224
                27 March 2020
                2020
                : 11
                : 535
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Department of Infectious Diseases, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University , Xi'an, China
                [2] 2Department of Immunology, The Fourth Military Medical University , Xi'an, China
                [3] 3Department of Respiratory and Critical Care, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University , Xi'an, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Junji Xing, Houston Methodist Research Institute, United States

                Reviewed by: Luis Chávez-Sánchez, Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS), Mexico; Arunika Mukhopadhaya, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali, India

                *Correspondence: Lihua Chen chenlh@ 123456fmmu.edu.cn

                This article was submitted to Molecular Innate Immunity, a section of the journal Frontiers in Immunology

                Article
                10.3389/fimmu.2020.00535
                7118225
                32292408
                e939068c-146a-4031-84c8-f0739cd9a0c1
                Copyright © 2020 Yi, Zhang, Yang, Li, Hu, Xiong, Wang, Jin, Zhang, Song, Wang, Chen and Lian.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 26 November 2019
                : 09 March 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 46, Pages: 14, Words: 8205
                Funding
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China 10.13039/501100001809
                Award ID: 81571531
                Award ID: 81671555
                Funded by: National Major Science and Technology Projects of China 10.13039/501100013076
                Award ID: 2017ZX10204401-002-005
                Funded by: Scientific Research Foundation of Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory 10.13039/501100012594
                Award ID: 2018SF-139
                Categories
                Immunology
                Original Research

                Immunology
                hepatitis b virus,hbv core protein,macrophage polarization,toll-like receptor 2,inflammatory cytokines

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