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      Understanding the effect of competition during evolutionary radiations: an integrated model of phenotypic and species diversification

      1 , 1
      Ecology Letters
      Wiley

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          Phylogenetic niche conservatism, phylogenetic signal and the relationship between phylogenetic relatedness and ecological similarity among species.

          Ecologists are increasingly adopting an evolutionary perspective, and in recent years, the idea that closely related species are ecologically similar has become widespread. In this regard, phylogenetic signal must be distinguished from phylogenetic niche conservatism. Phylogenetic niche conservatism results when closely related species are more ecologically similar that would be expected based on their phylogenetic relationships; its occurrence suggests that some process is constraining divergence among closely related species. In contrast, phylogenetic signal refers to the situation in which ecological similarity between species is related to phylogenetic relatedness; this is the expected outcome of Brownian motion divergence and thus is necessary, but not sufficient, evidence for the existence of phylogenetic niche conservatism. Although many workers consider phylogenetic niche conservatism to be common, a review of case studies indicates that ecological and phylogenetic similarities often are not related. Consequently, ecologists should not assume that phylogenetic niche conservatism exists, but rather should empirically examine the extent to which it occurs.
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            Ecology and the origin of species.

            The ecological hypothesis of speciation is that reproductive isolation evolves ultimately as a consequence of divergent natural selection on traits between environments. Ecological speciation is general and might occur in allopatry or sympatry, involve many agents of natural selection, and result from a combination of adaptive processes. The main difficulty of the ecological hypothesis has been the scarcity of examples from nature, but several potential cases have recently emerged. I review the mechanisms that give rise to new species by divergent selection, compare ecological speciation with its alternatives, summarize recent tests in nature, and highlight areas requiring research.
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              geiger v2.0: an expanded suite of methods for fitting macroevolutionary models to phylogenetic trees.

              Phylogenetic comparative methods are essential for addressing evolutionary hypotheses with interspecific data. The scale and scope of such data have increased dramatically in the past few years. Many existing approaches are either computationally infeasible or inappropriate for data of this size. To address both of these problems, we present geiger v2.0, a complete overhaul of the popular R package geiger. We have reimplemented existing methods with more efficient algorithms and have developed several new approaches for accomodating heterogeneous models and data types.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ecology Letters
                Ecol Lett
                Wiley
                1461-023X
                1461-0248
                September 10 2019
                September 10 2019
                Affiliations
                [1 ]École Normale Supérieure Paris Sciences et Lettres (PSL) Research University Institut de Biologie de l’École Normale Supérieure (IBENS) CNRS UMR 8197 INSERM U1024 46 rue d’UlmF‐75005Paris France
                Article
                10.1111/ele.13385
                31507039
                e943f03e-0a4f-4a4f-a2a2-32f50b06dbdf
                © 2019

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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