+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Hypothesis awareness confounds asynchronous control conditions in indirect measures of the rubber hand illusion

      1 , 2 , , 1 , 2 , 1 , 3
      Royal Society Open Science
      The Royal Society
      demand characteristics, phenomenological control, rubber hand illusion, embodiment, imaginative suggestion, hypothesis awareness

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Reports of changes in experiences of body location and ownership following synchronous tactile and visual stimulation of fake and real hands (rubber hand (RH) effects) are widely attributed to multisensory integration mechanisms. However, existing control methods for subjective report measures (asynchronous stroking and control statements) are confounded by participant hypothesis awareness; the report may reflect response to demand characteristics. Subjective report is often accompanied by indirect (also called ‘objective’ or ‘implicit’) measures. Here, we report tests of expectancies for synchronous ‘illusion’ and asynchronous ‘control’ conditions across two pre-registered studies ( n = 140 and n = 45) for two indirect measures: proprioceptive drift (a change in perceived hand location) and skin conductance response (a measure of physiological arousal). Expectancies for synchronous condition measures were greater than for asynchronous conditions in both studies. Differences between synchronous and asynchronous control condition measures are therefore confounded by hypothesis awareness. This means indirect measures of RH effects may reflect compliance, bias and phenomenological control in response to demand characteristics, just as for subjective measures. Valid control measures are required to support claims of a role of multisensory integration for both direct and indirect measures of RH effects.

          Related collections

          Most cited references40

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          Rubber hands 'feel' touch that eyes see.

            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            The Bayesian New Statistics: Hypothesis testing, estimation, meta-analysis, and power analysis from a Bayesian perspective.

            In the practice of data analysis, there is a conceptual distinction between hypothesis testing, on the one hand, and estimation with quantified uncertainty on the other. Among frequentists in psychology, a shift of emphasis from hypothesis testing to estimation has been dubbed "the New Statistics" (Cumming 2014). A second conceptual distinction is between frequentist methods and Bayesian methods. Our main goal in this article is to explain how Bayesian methods achieve the goals of the New Statistics better than frequentist methods. The article reviews frequentist and Bayesian approaches to hypothesis testing and to estimation with confidence or credible intervals. The article also describes Bayesian approaches to meta-analysis, randomized controlled trials, and power analysis.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Voluntary Facial Action Generates Emotion-Specific Autonomic Nervous System Activity

              Four experiments were conducted to determine whether voluntarily produced emotional facial configurations are associated with differentiated patterns of autonomic activity, and if so, how this might be mediated. Subjects received muscle-by-muscle instructions and coaching to produce facial configurations for anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise while heart rate, skin conductance, finger temperature, and somatic activity were monitored. Results indicated that voluntary facial activity produced significant levels of subjective experience of the associated emotion, and that autonomic distinctions among emotions: (a) were found both between negative and positive emotions and among negative emotions, (b) were consistent between group and individual subjects' data, (c) were found in both male and female subjects, (d) were found in both specialized (actors, scientists) and nonspecialized populations, (e) were stronger when the voluntary facial configurations most closely resembled actual emotional expressions, and (f) were stronger when experience of the associated emotion was reported. The capacity of voluntary facial activity to generate emotion-specific autonomic activity: (a) did not require subjects to see facial expressions (either in a mirror or on an experimenter's face), and (b) could not be explained by differences in the difficulty of making the expressions or by differences in concomitant somatic activity.

                Author and article information

                R Soc Open Sci
                R Soc Open Sci
                Royal Society Open Science
                The Royal Society
                November 3, 2021
                November 2021
                : 8
                : 11
                [ 1 ] Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, University of Sussex, , Falmer, BN1 9RH, UK
                [ 2 ] Department of Informatics, University of Sussex, , Chichester Building, Falmer, BN1 9RH, UK
                [ 3 ] Department of Psychology, University of Sussex, , Pevensey Building, Falmer, BN1 9RH, UK
                © 2021 The Authors.

                Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funded by: Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100007631;
                Funded by: Dr. Mortimer and Theresa Sackler Foundation;
                Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience
                Research Articles

                demand characteristics,phenomenological control,rubber hand illusion,embodiment,imaginative suggestion,hypothesis awareness


                Comment on this article