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      Pioglitazone Protects Compression-Mediated Apoptosis in Nucleus Pulposus Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Suppressing Oxidative Stress

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          Abstract

          Excessive compression, the main cause of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, affected endogenous repair of the intervertebral disc. Pioglitazone (PGZ) is the agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, which has been widely used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study aim at investigating whether pioglitazone has protective effects on compression-mediated cell apoptosis in nucleus pulposus mesenchymal stem cells (NP-MSCs) and further exploring the possible underlying mechanism. Our results indicated that the isolated cells satisfied the criteria of MSC stated by the International Society for Cellular Therapy. Besides, our research revealed that pioglitazone could protect cell viability, cell proliferation of NP-MSCs and alleviated the toxic effects caused by compression. The actin stress fibers was suppressed obviously under compression, and pioglitazone alleviated the adverse outcomes. Pioglitazone exerted protective effects on compression-induced NP-MSCs apoptosis according to annexin V/PI double-staining and TUNEL assays. Pioglitazone suppressed compression-induced NP-MSCs oxidative stress, including decreasing compression-induced overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and alleviated compression-induced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) decrease. Ultrastructure collapse of the mitochondria exhibited a notable improvement by pioglitazone in compression-induced NP-MSCs according to transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the molecular results showed that pioglitazone significantly decreased the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins, including cyto.cytochrome c, Bax, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved caspase-3, and promoted Bcl-2 expression. These results indicated that pioglitazone alleviated compression-induced NP-MSCs apoptosis by suppressing oxidative stress and the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, which may be a valuable candidate for the treatment of IVD degeneration.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Cell death in intervertebral disc degeneration.

           Fan Ding,  Z Shao,  Li Xiong (2013)
          Degeneration of intervertebral disc (IVD) is mainly a chronic process of excessive destruction of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and also is thought to be the primary cause of low back pain. Presently, however, the underlying mechanism of IVD degeneration is still not elucidated. Cellular loss from cell death has been believed to contribute to the degradation of ECM and plays an important role in the process of IVD degeneration, but the mechanisms of cell death in degenerated IVD remain unclear. Apoptosis, a very important type of IVD cell death, has been considered to play a crucial role in the process of degeneration. Autophagy, a non-apoptosis death type of programmed cell death, has been considered extensively involved in many pathological and physiological processes, including the degenerative diseases. Thus, the research on cell death in IVD degeneration has become a new focus recently. In this review, by analyzing the available literature pertaining to cell death in IVD and discussing the inducing factors of IVD degeneration, NP cells and ECM in IVD degeneration, apoptotic signal transduction pathways involved in IVD cell death, the relationship of cell death with IVD degeneration and potential therapeutic strategy for IVD degeneration by regulating cell death, we conclude that different stimuli induce cell death in IVD via various signal transduction pathways, and that cell death may play a key role in the degenerative process of IVD. Regulation of cell death could be a potential and attractive therapeutic strategy for IVD degeneration.
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            ROS: Crucial Intermediators in the Pathogenesis of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration

            Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in degenerative intervertebral disc (IVD) indicates the contribution of oxidative stress to IVD degeneration (IDD), giving a novel insight into the pathogenesis of IDD. ROS are crucial intermediators in the signaling network of disc cells. They regulate the matrix metabolism, proinflammatory phenotype, apoptosis, autophagy, and senescence of disc cells. Oxidative stress not only reinforces matrix degradation and inflammation, but also promotes the decrease in the number of viable and functional cells in the microenvironment of IVDs. Moreover, ROS modify matrix proteins in IVDs to cause oxidative damage of disc extracellular matrix, impairing the mechanical function of IVDs. Consequently, the progression of IDD is accelerated. Therefore, a therapeutic strategy targeting oxidative stress would provide a novel perspective for IDD treatment. Various antioxidants have been proposed as effective drugs for IDD treatment. Antioxidant supplementation suppresses ROS production in disc cells to promote the matrix synthesis of disc cells and to prevent disc cells from death and senescence in vitro. However, there is not enough in vivo evidence to support the efficiency of antioxidant supplementation to retard the process of IDD. Further investigations based on in vivo and clinical studies will be required to develop effective antioxidative therapies for IDD.
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              Autophagy is activated in compression-induced cell degeneration and is mediated by reactive oxygen species in nucleus pulposus cells exposed to compression.

              To determine whether autophagy contributes to the pathogenesis of degenerative disc disease (DDD) or retards the intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, and investigate the possible relationship between compression-induced autophagy and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in nucleus pulposus (NP) cells in vitro.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                OMCL
                Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
                Hindawi
                1942-0900
                1942-0994
                2019
                22 November 2019
                : 2019
                Affiliations
                1Department of Orthopedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China
                2Department of Cardiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China
                3Department of Hematology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China
                4Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The First People's Hospital of Jingmen, Jingmen 448000, Hubei, China
                Author notes

                Guest Editor: Nicola Amodio

                Article
                10.1155/2019/4764071
                6893265
                Copyright © 2019 Yiqiang Hu et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Applied Basic Research Projects of Wuhan
                Award ID: 2017060201010192
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 81401827
                Award ID: 81702197
                Award ID: 81874025
                Award ID: 91649204
                Award ID: 81572204
                Funded by: National Key Research and Development Program
                Award ID: 2016YFC1100100
                Categories
                Research Article

                Molecular medicine

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