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      Genomic Features and Insights into the Taxonomy, Virulence, and Benevolence of Plant-Associated Burkholderia Species

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          Abstract

          The members of the Burkholderia genus are characterized by high versatility and adaptability to various ecological niches. With the availability of the genome sequences of numerous species of Burkholderia, many studies have been conducted to elucidate the unique features of this exceptional group of bacteria. Genomic and metabolic plasticity are common among Burkholderia species, as evidenced by their relatively large multi-replicon genomes that are rich in insertion sequences and genomic islands and contain a high proportion of coding regions. Such unique features could explain their adaptability to various habitats and their versatile lifestyles, which are reflected in a multiplicity of species including free-living rhizospheric bacteria, plant endosymbionts, legume nodulators, and plant pathogens. The phytopathogenic Burkholderia group encompasses several pathogens representing threats to important agriculture crops such as rice. Contrarily, plant-beneficial Burkholderia have also been reported, which have symbiotic and growth-promoting roles. In this review, the taxonomy of Burkholderia is discussed emphasizing the recent updates and the contributions of genomic studies to precise taxonomic positioning. Moreover, genomic and functional studies on Burkholderia are reviewed and insights are provided into the mechanisms underlying the virulence and benevolence of phytopathogenic and plant-beneficial Burkholderia, respectively, on the basis of cutting-edge knowledge.

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          Most cited references 164

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          Amelioration of bacterial genomes: rates of change and exchange.

          Although bacterial species display wide variation in their overall GC contents, the genes within a particular species' genome are relatively similar in base composition. As a result, sequences that are novel to a bacterial genome-i.e., DNA introduced through recent horizontal transfer-often bear unusual sequence characteristics and can be distinguished from ancestral DNA. At the time of introgression, horizontally transferred genes reflect the base composition of the donor genome; but, over time, these sequences will ameliorate to reflect the DNA composition of the new genome because the introgressed genes are subject to the same mutational processes affecting all genes in the recipient genome. This process of amelioration is evident in a large group of genes involved in host-cell invasion by enteric bacteria and can be modeled to predict the amount of time required after transfer for foreign DNA to resemble native DNA. Furthermore, models of amelioration can be used to estimate the time of introgression of foreign genes in a chromosome. Applying this approach to a 1.43-megabase continuous sequence, we have calculated that the entire Escherichia coli chromosome contains more than 600 kb of horizontally transferred, protein-coding DNA. Estimates of amelioration times indicate that this DNA has accumulated at a rate of 31 kb per million years, which is on the order of the amount of variant DNA introduced by point mutations. This rate predicts that the E. coli and Salmonella enterica lineages have each gained and lost more than 3 megabases of novel DNA since their divergence.
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            Genomic islands: tools of bacterial horizontal gene transfer and evolution

            Bacterial genomes evolve through mutations, rearrangements or horizontal gene transfer. Besides the core genes encoding essential metabolic functions, bacterial genomes also harbour a number of accessory genes acquired by horizontal gene transfer that might be beneficial under certain environmental conditions. The horizontal gene transfer contributes to the diversification and adaptation of microorganisms, thus having an impact on the genome plasticity. A significant part of the horizontal gene transfer is or has been facilitated by genomic islands (GEIs). GEIs are discrete DNA segments, some of which are mobile and others which are not, or are no longer mobile, which differ among closely related strains. A number of GEIs are capable of integration into the chromosome of the host, excision, and transfer to a new host by transformation, conjugation or transduction. GEIs play a crucial role in the evolution of a broad spectrum of bacteria as they are involved in the dissemination of variable genes, including antibiotic resistance and virulence genes leading to generation of hospital ‘superbugs’, as well as catabolic genes leading to formation of new metabolic pathways. Depending on the composition of gene modules, the same type of GEIs can promote survival of pathogenic as well as environmental bacteria.
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              The multifarious, multireplicon Burkholderia cepacia complex.

              The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a collection of genetically distinct but phenotypically similar bacteria that are divided into at least nine species. Bcc bacteria are found throughout the environment, where they can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on plants and some members can also degrade natural and man-made pollutants. Bcc bacteria are now recognized as important opportunistic pathogens that can cause variable lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients, which result in asymptomatic carriage, chronic infection or 'cepacia syndrome', which is characterized by a rapid decline in lung function that can include invasive disease. Here we highlight the unique characteristics of the Bcc, focusing on the factors that determine virulence.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Integrated Biological Science, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea; mannaa_mohamed@ 123456yahoo.com
                [2 ]Department of Oriental Food and Culinary Arts, Youngsan University, Busan 48015, Korea; inmpark@ 123456ysu.ac.kr
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: yseo2011@ 123456pusan.ac.kr ; Tel.: +82-51-510-2267
                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                29 December 2018
                January 2019
                : 20
                : 1
                30598000 6337347 10.3390/ijms20010121 ijms-20-00121
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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