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      What We Have Learned from Animal Models of Dry Eye

      , Ph.D, , MD

      International ophthalmology clinics

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          Abstract

          Animal models have proved valuable to investigate the pathogenesis of dry eye disease, identify therapeutic targets and the efficacy of candidate therapeutics for dry eye. Pharmacological inhibition of the lacrimal functional unit and exposure of the mouse eye to desiccating stress was found to activate innate immune pathways, promote dendritic cell maturation and initiate an adaptive T cell response to ocular surface antigens. Disease relevant mediators and pathways have been identified through use of genetically altered mice, specific inhibitors and adoptive transfer of desiccating stress primed CD4+ T cells to naïve recipients. Findings from mouse models have elucidated the mechanism of action of cyclosporine A and the rationale for developing lifitegrast, the two currently approved therapeutics in the US.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          0374731
          4346
          Int Ophthalmol Clin
          Int Ophthalmol Clin
          International ophthalmology clinics
          0020-8167
          1536-9617
          20 January 2017
          Spring 2017
          01 April 2018
          : 57
          : 2
          : 109-118
          Affiliations
          Ocular Surface Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Baylor College of Medicine, 6565 Fannin St. NC505, Houston, Texas 77030
          Author notes
          CORRESPONDING AUTHOR. Michael E. Stern, Ph.D., Cullen Eye Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, 6565 Fannin St., NC505, Houston, Texas 77030, Phone: 713-798-6100, Fax: 713-798-1457, mstern@ 123456bcm.edu
          Article
          PMC5347474 PMC5347474 5347474 nihpa841838
          10.1097/IIO.0000000000000169
          5347474
          28282318
          Categories
          Article

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