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      The HSP90 Inhibitor, 17-AAG, Influences the Activation and Proliferation of T Lymphocytes via AKT/GSK3β Signaling in MRL/lpr Mice

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          Abstract

          Objective

          To explore the molecular mechanism of 17-AAG in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and the effects of the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor 17-AAG on the activation and proliferation of lymphocytes and the AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway in MRL/lpr mice were detected.

          Methods

          MRL/lpr mice were randomly divided into the control group and the experimental group. The experimental group was injected intraperitoneally with 17-AAG, and T lymphocytes were separated by magnetic beads. Lymphocyte proliferation was detected by MTT and flow cytometry (FCM), and the expression of the HSP90 protein and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway-related proteins was detected by Western blotting. Renal histopathology and immune complex deposition were also observed in both groups.

          Results

          Immune complex deposition and inflammation decreased in kidneys from MRL/lpr mice in the experimental group. HSP90 protein expression, T lymphocyte proliferation and phosphorylated AKT and GSK3β levels also decreased in the experimental group.

          Conclusion

          17-AAG can inhibit the activation and proliferation of T lymphocytes and downregulate the AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway, which may be relevant for the treatment of SLE.

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          Most cited references 20

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          CD69: from activation marker to metabolic gatekeeper.

           Danay Cibrian,  Francisco Sánchez-Madrid (corresponding) (2017)
          CD69 is a membrane-bound, type II C-lectin receptor. It is a classical early marker of lymphocyte activation due to its rapid appearance on the surface of the plasma membrane after stimulation. CD69 is expressed by several subsets of tissue resident immune cells, including resident memory T (TRM) cells and gamma delta (γδ) T cells, and is therefore considered a marker of tissue retention. Recent evidence has revealed that CD69 regulates some specific functions of selected T-cell subsets, determining the migration-retention ratio as well as the acquisition of effector or regulatory phenotypes. Specifically, CD69 regulates the differentiation of regulatory T (Treg) cells as well as the secretion of IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-22. The identification of putative CD69 ligands, such as Galectin-1 (Gal-1), suggests that CD69-induced signaling can be regulated not only during cognate contacts between T cells and antigen-presenting cells in lymphoid organs, but also in the periphery, where cytokines and other metabolites control the final outcome of the immune response. Here, we will discuss new aspects of the molecular signaling mediated by CD69, and its involvement in the metabolic reprogramming regulating TH-effector lineages and provide their ramifications and possible significance in homeostasis and pathological scenarios. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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            The critical role of Akt in cardiovascular function.

            Akt kinase, a member of AGC kinases, is important in many cellular functions including proliferation, migration, cell growth and metabolism. There are three known Akt isoforms which play critical and diverse roles in the cardiovascular system. Akt activity is regulated by its upstream regulatory pathways at transcriptional and post-translational levels. Beta-catenin/Tcf-4, GLI1 and Stat-3 are some of few known transcriptional regulators of AKT gene. Threonine 308 and serine 473 are the two critical phosphorylation sites of Akt1. Translocation of Akt to the cell membrane facilitates PDK1 phosphorylation of the threonine site. The serine site is phosphorylated by mTORC2. Ack1, Src, PTK6, TBK1, IKBKE and IKKε are some of the non-canonical pathways which affect the Akt activity. Protein-protein interactions of Akt to actin and Hsp90 increase the Akt activity while Akt binding to other proteins such as CTMP and TRB3 reduces the Akt activity. The action of Akt on its downstream targets determines its function in cardiovascular processes such as cell survival, growth, proliferation, angiogenesis, vasorelaxation, and cell metabolism. Akt promotes cell survival via caspase-9, YAP, Bcl-2, and Bcl-x activities. Inhibition of FoxO proteins by Akt also increases cell survival by transcriptional mechanisms. Akt stimulates cell growth and proliferation through mTORC1. Akt also increases VEGF secretion and mediates eNOS phosphorylation, vasorelaxation and angiogenesis. Akt can increase cellular metabolism through its downstream targets GSK3 and GLUT4. The alterations of Akt signaling play an important role in many cardiovascular pathological processes such as atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, and vascular remodeling. Several Akt inhibitors have been developed and tested as anti-tumor agents. They could be potential novel therapeutics for the cardiovascular diseases.
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              Heat Shock Proteins as Immunomodulants

              Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are conserved molecules whose main role is to facilitate folding of other proteins. Most Hsps are generally stress-inducible as they play a particularly important cytoprotective role in cells exposed to stressful conditions. Initially, Hsps were generally thought to occur intracellulary. However, recent work has shown that some Hsps are secreted to the cell exterior particularly in response to stress. For this reason, they are generally regarded as danger signaling biomarkers. In this way, they prompt the immune system to react to prevailing adverse cellular conditions. For example, their enhanced secretion by cancer cells facilitate targeting of these cells by natural killer cells. Notably, Hsps are implicated in both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses. Their effects on immune cells depends on a number of aspects such as concentration of the respective Hsp species. In addition, various Hsp species exert unique effects on immune cells. Because of their conservation, Hsps are implicated in auto-immune diseases. Here we discuss the various metabolic pathways in which various Hsps manifest immune modulation. In addition, we discuss possible experimental variations that may account for contradictory reports on the immunomodulatory function of some Hsps.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                dddt
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                29 October 2020
                2020
                : 14
                : 4605-4612
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Dermatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University , Chongqing 400016, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Sheng Fang Department of Dermatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University , 1 Youyi Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Email fangshengderm@163.com
                Article
                269725
                10.2147/DDDT.S269725
                7605613
                33149557
                © 2020 Hong et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 20, Pages: 8
                Funding
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China, open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100001809;
                Funded by: Chongqing Research Program of Basic Research and Frontier Technology;
                The present study was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.81602752) and Chongqing Research Program of Basic Research and Frontier Technology (No. cstc2015jcyjA10082).
                Categories
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                activation, 17-aag, hsp90, akt, lupus

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