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      Bioinspired silk fibroin materials: From silk building blocks extraction and reconstruction to advanced biomedical applications

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          Abstract

          Silk fibroin has become a promising biomaterial owing to its remarkable mechanical property, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and sufficient supply. However, it is difficult to directly construct materials with other formats except for yarn, fabric and nonwoven based on natural silk. A promising bioinspired strategy is firstly extracting desired building blocks of silk, then reconstructing them into functional regenerated silk fibroin (RSF) materials with controllable formats and structures. This strategy could give it excellent processability and modifiability, thus well meet the diversified needs in biomedical applications. Recently, to engineer RSF materials with properties similar to or beyond the hierarchical structured natural silk, novel extraction and reconstruction strategies have been developed. In this review, we seek to describe varied building blocks of silk at different levels used in biomedical field and their effective extraction and reconstruction strategies. This review also present recent discoveries and research progresses on how these functional RSF biomaterials used in advanced biomedical applications, especially in the fields of cell-material interactions, soft tissue regeneration, and flexible bioelectronic devices. Finally, potential study and application for future opportunities, and current challenges for these bioinspired strategies and corresponding usage were also comprehensively discussed. In this way, it aims to provide valuable references for the design and modification of novel silk biomaterials, and further promote the high-quality-utilization of silk or other biopolymers.

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          Matrix elasticity directs stem cell lineage specification.

          Microenvironments appear important in stem cell lineage specification but can be difficult to adequately characterize or control with soft tissues. Naive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are shown here to specify lineage and commit to phenotypes with extreme sensitivity to tissue-level elasticity. Soft matrices that mimic brain are neurogenic, stiffer matrices that mimic muscle are myogenic, and comparatively rigid matrices that mimic collagenous bone prove osteogenic. During the initial week in culture, reprogramming of these lineages is possible with addition of soluble induction factors, but after several weeks in culture, the cells commit to the lineage specified by matrix elasticity, consistent with the elasticity-insensitive commitment of differentiated cell types. Inhibition of nonmuscle myosin II blocks all elasticity-directed lineage specification-without strongly perturbing many other aspects of cell function and shape. The results have significant implications for understanding physical effects of the in vivo microenvironment and also for therapeutic uses of stem cells.
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            Electrospinning and Electrospun Nanofibers: Methods, Materials, and Applications

            Electrospinning is a versatile and viable technique for generating ultrathin fibers. Remarkable progress has been made with regard to the development of electrospinning methods and engineering of electrospun nanofibers to suit or enable various applications. We aim to provide a comprehensive overview of electrospinning, including the principle, methods, materials, and applications. We begin with a brief introduction to the early history of electrospinning, followed by discussion of its principle and typical apparatus. We then discuss its renaissance over the past two decades as a powerful technology for the production of nanofibers with diversified compositions, structures, and properties. Afterward, we discuss the applications of electrospun nanofibers, including their use as “smart” mats, filtration membranes, catalytic supports, energy harvesting/conversion/storage components, and photonic and electronic devices, as well as biomedical scaffolds. We highlight the most relevant and recent advances related to the applications of electrospun nanofibers by focusing on the most representative examples. We also offer perspectives on the challenges, opportunities, and new directions for future development. At the end, we discuss approaches to the scale-up production of electrospun nanofibers and briefly discuss various types of commercial products based on electrospun nanofibers that have found widespread use in our everyday life.
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              Silk as a Biomaterial.

              Silks are fibrous proteins with remarkable mechanical properties produced in fiber form by silkworms and spiders. Silk fibers in the form of sutures have been used for centuries. Recently regenerated silk solutions have been used to form a variety of biomaterials, such as gels, sponges and films, for medical applications. Silks can be chemically modified through amino acid side chains to alter surface properties or to immobilize cellular growth factors. Molecular engineering of silk sequences has been used to modify silks with specific features, such as cell recognition or mineralization. The degradability of silk biomaterials can be related to the mode of processing and the corresponding content of beta sheet crystallinity. Several primary cells and cell lines have been successfully grown on different silk biomaterials to demonstrate a range of biological outcomes. Silk biomaterials are biocompatible when studied in vitro and in vivo. Silk scaffolds have been successfully used in wound healing and in tissue engineering of bone, cartilage, tendon and ligament tissues.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Mater Today Bio
                Mater Today Bio
                Materials Today Bio
                Elsevier
                2590-0064
                06 August 2022
                December 2022
                06 August 2022
                : 16
                : 100381
                Affiliations
                [1]State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Nano-Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai, 201620, People's Republic of China
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. zyp@ 123456dhu.edu.cn
                Article
                S2590-0064(22)00179-X 100381
                10.1016/j.mtbio.2022.100381
                9395666
                e960e6d3-0e09-4b17-8b0c-e25f368192dd
                © 2022 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 17 June 2022
                : 22 July 2022
                : 23 July 2022
                Categories
                Review Article

                building blocks extraction,regenerated silk fibroin material,cell-material interaction,soft tissue engineering,flexible bioelectronic device

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