51
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Survey Sequencing Reveals Elevated DNA Transposon Activity, Novel Elements, and Variation in Repetitive Landscapes among Vesper Bats

      research-article

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The repetitive landscapes of mammalian genomes typically display high Class I (retrotransposon) transposable element (TE) content, which usually comprises around half of the genome. In contrast, the Class II (DNA transposon) contribution is typically small (<3% in model mammals). Most mammalian genomes exhibit a precipitous decline in Class II activity beginning roughly 40 Ma. The first signs of more recently active mammalian Class II TEs were obtained from the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus, and are reflected by higher genome content (∼5%). To aid in determining taxonomic limits and potential impacts of this elevated Class II activity, we performed 454 survey sequencing of a second Myotis species as well as four additional taxa within the family Vespertilionidae and an outgroup species from Phyllostomidae. Graph-based clustering methods were used to reconstruct the major repeat families present in each species and novel elements were identified in several taxa. Retrotransposons remained the dominant group with regard to overall genome mass. Elevated Class II TE composition (3–4%) was observed in all five vesper bats, while less than 0.5% of the phyllostomid reads were identified as Class II derived. Differences in satellite DNA and Class I TE content are also described among vespertilionid taxa. These analyses present the first cohesive description of TE evolution across closely related mammalian species, revealing genome-scale differences in TE content within a single family.

          Related collections

          Most cited references48

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          TIGR Gene Indices clustering tools (TGICL): a software system for fast clustering of large EST datasets.

          TGICL is a pipeline for analysis of large Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) and mRNA databases in which the sequences are first clustered based on pairwise sequence similarity, and then assembled by individual clusters (optionally with quality values) to produce longer, more complete consensus sequences. The system can run on multi-CPU architectures including SMP and PVM.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            MIWI2 is essential for spermatogenesis and repression of transposons in the mouse male germline.

            Small RNAs associate with Argonaute proteins and serve as sequence-specific guides for regulation of mRNA stability, productive translation, chromatin organization, and genome structure. In animals, the Argonaute superfamily segregates into two clades. The Argonaute clade acts in RNAi and in microRNA-mediated gene regulation in partnership with 21-22 nt RNAs. The Piwi clade, and their 26-30 nt piRNA partners, have yet to be assigned definitive functions. In mice, two Piwi-family members have been demonstrated to have essential roles in spermatogenesis. Here, we examine the effects of disrupting the gene encoding the third family member, MIWI2. Miwi2-deficient mice display a meiotic-progression defect in early prophase of meiosis I and a marked and progressive loss of germ cells with age. These phenotypes may be linked to an inappropriate activation of transposable elements detected in Miwi2 mutants. Our observations suggest a conserved function for Piwi-clade proteins in the control of transposons in the germline.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Comparative and demographic analysis of orangutan genomes

              “Orangutan” is derived from the Malay term “man of the forest” and aptly describes the Southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orangutan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereby providing an informative perspective on hominid evolution. Here we present a Sumatran orangutan draft genome assembly and short read sequence data from five Sumatran and five Bornean orangutan genomes. Our analyses reveal that, compared to other primates, the orangutan genome has many unique features. Structural evolution of the orangutan genome has proceeded much more slowly than other great apes, evidenced by fewer rearrangements, less segmental duplication, a lower rate of gene family turnover and surprisingly quiescent Alu repeats, which have played a major role in restructuring other primate genomes. We also describe the first primate polymorphic neocentromere, found in both Pongo species, emphasizing the gradual evolution of orangutan genome structure. Orangutans have extremely low energy usage for a eutherian mammal1, far lower than their hominid relatives. Adding their genome to the repertoire of sequenced primates illuminates new signals of positive selection in several pathways including glycolipid metabolism. From the population perspective, both Pongo species are deeply diverse; however, Sumatran individuals possess greater diversity than their Bornean counterparts, and more species-specific variation. Our estimate of Bornean/Sumatran speciation time, 400k years ago (ya), is more recent than most previous studies and underscores the complexity of the orangutan speciation process. Despite a smaller modern census population size, the Sumatran effective population size (Ne ) expanded exponentially relative to the ancestral Ne after the split, while Bornean Ne declined over the same period. Overall, the resources and analyses presented here offer new opportunities in evolutionary genomics, insights into hominid biology, and an extensive database of variation for conservation efforts.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Genome Biol Evol
                Genome Biol Evol
                gbe
                gbe
                Genome Biology and Evolution
                Oxford University Press
                1759-6653
                2012
                2012
                4 April 2012
                4 April 2012
                : 4
                : 4
                : 575-585
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Entomology, and Plant Pathology, Mississippi State University
                [2 ]Biology Centre ASCR, Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Ceske Budejovice, CZ-37005, Czech Republic
                [3 ]Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University
                [4 ]The Institute for Genomics, Biocomputing and Biotechnology, Mississippi State University
                [5 ]Present address: Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute, Florida Atlantic University
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: E-mail: dray@ 123456bch.msstate.edu .

                Associate editor: Richard Cordaux

                Article
                10.1093/gbe/evs038
                3342881
                22491057
                e968b05d-4ec1-4a3d-822d-ae2d09af7cbb
                © The Author(s) 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 29 March 2012
                Page count
                Pages: 11
                Categories
                Research Articles

                Genetics
                chiroptera,survey sequencing,transposon
                Genetics
                chiroptera, survey sequencing, transposon

                Comments

                Comment on this article