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      A loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for Schistosoma mansoni detection in Biomphalaria spp. from schistosomiasis-endemic areas in Minas Gerais, Brazil


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          Schistosomiasis a neglected tropical disease  endemic in Brazil. It is caused by the trematode Schistosoma mansoni, which is transmitted by snails of the genus Biomphalaria. Among measures used to control and eliminate schistosomiasis, accurate mapping and monitoring of snail breeding sites are recommended. Despite the limitations of parasitological methods, they are still used to identify infected snails. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic method for the identification of infected snails. In the work reported here, we aimed to validate the use of LAMP for the detection of S. mansoni in snails of the genus Biomphalaria.


          Snails were collected in five municipalities of the Mucuri Valley and Jequitinhonha Valley regions in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Snails were pooled according to collection site and then squeezed for the detection of S. mansoni and other trematode larvae. Pooled snails were subjected to pepsin digestion and DNA extraction. Molecular assays were performed for species-specific identification and characterization of the samples. A previously described LAMP assay was adapted, evaluated, and validated using laboratory and field samples.


          Using the parasitological method described here, S. mansoni cercariae were detected in snails from two collection sites, and cercariae of the family Spirorchiidae were found in snails from one site. The snails were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Biomphalaria glabrata, the main snail host of S. mansoni in Brazil, was detected in 72.2% of the collection sites. Biomphalaria kuhniana, which is resistant to S. mansoni infection, was found in the remaining sites. Multiplex, low stringency (LS), and conventional PCR allowed the detection of positive snails in four additional sites. Trematodes belonging to the families Strigeidae and Echinostomatidae were detected by multiplex PCR in two sites. The LAMP assay was effective in detecting the presence of S. mansoni infection in laboratory (7 days post-infection) and field samples with no cross-reactivity for other trematodes. When compared to LS and conventional PCR, LAMP showed 100% specificity, 85.7% sensitivity, and a κ index of 0.88.


          Our findings suggest that LAMP is a good alternative method for the detection and monitoring of transmission foci of S. mansoni, as it was three times as effective as the parasitological examination used here for the detection of infection, and is more directly applicable in the field than other molecular techniques.

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          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s13071-021-04888-y.

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          The Measurement of Observer Agreement for Categorical Data

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            Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA.

            T. Notomi (2000)
            We have developed a novel method, termed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), that amplifies DNA with high specificity, efficiency and rapidity under isothermal conditions. This method employs a DNA polymerase and a set of four specially designed primers that recognize a total of six distinct sequences on the target DNA. An inner primer containing sequences of the sense and antisense strands of the target DNA initiates LAMP. The following strand displacement DNA synthesis primed by an outer primer releases a single-stranded DNA. This serves as template for DNA synthesis primed by the second inner and outer primers that hybridize to the other end of the target, which produces a stem-loop DNA structure. In subsequent LAMP cycling one inner primer hybridizes to the loop on the product and initiates displacement DNA synthesis, yielding the original stem-loop DNA and a new stem-loop DNA with a stem twice as long. The cycling reaction continues with accumulation of 10(9) copies of target in less than an hour. The final products are stem-loop DNAs with several inverted repeats of the target and cauliflower-like structures with multiple loops formed by annealing between alternately inverted repeats of the target in the same strand. Because LAMP recognizes the target by six distinct sequences initially and by four distinct sequences afterwards, it is expected to amplify the target sequence with high selectivity.
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              Detection of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium DNA by loop-mediated isothermal amplification: identification of infected snails from early prepatency.

              Monitoring post-control transmission of schistosomes by examining humans becomes less effective as infection rates among humans decrease. Molecular monitoring of prepatent schistosome infection in snails by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used for studying human-to-snail transmission, and snail prepatent infection rates were found to correspond to infection prevalence and average intensity in human populations contacting the sites studied. We have now developed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for identifying Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium to facilitate large-scale evaluation of post-intervention transmission potential. LAMP primers were designed based on the Sm1-7 and DraI repeated sequences of the corresponding schistosomes, and amplification by LAMP of these 121-basepair highly abundant sequences provided a detection sensitivity of 0.1 fg of genomic DNA. When these LAMP assays were applied for examining infected laboratory snails, it was possible to identify infection from the first day after exposure to miracidia. The potential advantages of these assays are discussed.

                Author and article information

                Parasit Vectors
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasites & Vectors
                BioMed Central (London )
                6 August 2021
                6 August 2021
                : 14
                [1 ]GRID grid.418068.3, ISNI 0000 0001 0723 0931, Grupo de Pesquisa em Helmintologia e Malacologia Médica, Instituto René Rachou, , Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, ; Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais Brazil
                [2 ]GRID grid.418068.3, ISNI 0000 0001 0723 0931, Grupo de Pesquisa em Biologia e Imunologia Parasitária, Instituto René Rachou, , Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, ; Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais Brazil
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002322, Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior;
                Award ID: 001
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003593, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico;
                Award ID: 308869/2017-6
                Award ID: 303131/2018-7
                Funded by: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico/Programa de Excelência em Pesquisa - Pesquisa e Ensaios Clínicos (PROEP/PEC)
                Award ID: 420685/2017-0
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2021

                schistosomiasis,biomphalaria,schistosoma mansoni,lamp,molecular diagnostics
                schistosomiasis, biomphalaria, schistosoma mansoni, lamp, molecular diagnostics


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