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      Relationship of Periodontal Disease to Carotid Artery Intima-Media Wall Thickness : The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

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          Abstract

          Periodontitis has been linked to clinical cardiovascular disease but not to subclinical atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether periodontitis is associated with carotid artery intima-media wall thickness (IMT). Cross-sectional data on 6017 persons aged 52 to 75 years were obtained from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study 1996 to 1998 examination. The dependent variable was carotid IMT >/=1 mm. Periodontitis was defined by extent of attachment loss >/=3 mm: none/mild (<10%), moderate (10% to <30%), or severe (>/=30%). Covariates included age, sex, diabetes, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, hypertension, smoking, waist-hip ratio, education, and race/study center. Odds of IMT >/=1 mm were higher for severe periodontitis (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.73 to 2.53) and moderate periodontitis (OR 1.40, CI 1.17 to 1.67) compared with no periodontitis. In a multivariable logistic regression model, severe periodontitis (OR 1.31, CI 1.03 to 1.66) was associated with IMT >/=1 mm, while adjusting for the other factors in the model. These results provide the first indication that periodontitis may play a role in the pathogenesis of atheroma formation, as well as in cardiovascular events.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Association of coronary heart disease incidence with carotid arterial wall thickness and major risk factors: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, 1987-1993.

          Few studies have determined whether greater carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in asymptomatic individuals is associated prospectively with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). In the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, carotid IMT, an index of generalized atherosclerosis, was defined as the mean of IMT measurements at six sites of the carotid arteries using B-mode ultrasound. The authors assessed its relation to CHD incidence over 4-7 years of follow-up (1987-1993) in four US communities (Forsyth County, North Carolina; Jackson, Mississippi; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Washington County, Maryland) from samples of 7,289 women and 5,552 men aged 45-64 years who were free of clinical CHD at baseline. There were 96 incident events for women and 194 for men. In sex-specific Cox proportional hazards models adjusted only for age, race, and center, the hazard rate ratio comparing extreme mean IMT (> or = 1 mm) to not extreme (< 1 mm) was 5.07 for women (95% confidence interval 3.08-8.36) and 1.85 for men (95% confidence interval 1.28-2.69). The relation was graded (monotonic), and models with cubic splines indicated significant nonlinearity. The strength of the association was reduced by including major CHD risk factors, but remained elevated at higher IMT. Up to 1 mm mean IMT, women had lower adjusted annual event rates than did men, but above 1 mm their event rate was closer to that of men. Thus, mean carotid IMT is a noninvasive predictor of future CHD incidence.
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            Periodontal diseases: pathogenesis.

             S Offenbacher (1996)
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              Dental disease and risk of coronary heart disease and mortality.

              To investigate a reported association between dental disease and risk of coronary heart disease. National sample of American adults who participated in a health examination survey in the early 1970s. Prospective cohort study in which participants underwent a standard dental examination at baseline and were followed up to 1987. Proportional hazards analysis was used to estimate relative risks adjusted for several covariates. Incidence of mortality or admission to hospital because of coronary heart disease; total mortality. Among all 9760 subjects included in the analysis those with periodontitis had a 25% increased risk of coronary heart disease relative to those with minimal periodontal disease. Poor oral hygiene, determined by the extent of dental debris and calculus, was also associated with an increased incidence of coronary heart disease. In men younger than 50 years at baseline periodontal disease was a stronger risk factor for coronary heart disease; men with periodontitis had a relative risk of 1.72. Both periodontal disease and poor oral hygiene showed stronger associations with total mortality than with coronary heart disease. Dental disease is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, particularly in young men. Whether this is a causal association is unclear. Dental health may be a more general indicator of personal hygiene and possibly health care practices.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
                ATVB
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                1079-5642
                1524-4636
                November 2001
                November 2001
                : 21
                : 11
                : 1816-1822
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC.
                Article
                10.1161/hq1101.097803
                11701471
                © 2001

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