We evaluate the ability of cryopreserved rabbit amniotic membrane (AM) transplantation to reduce postoperative inflammation and the extent of fibrosis following experimental strabismus surgery. Ten white rabbits underwent bilateral superior rectus (SR) muscle resection. In the left eye, the resected SR muscle was wrapped with cryopreserved rabbit AM. The right eye underwent SR resection only and served as a control. The eyes were enucleated 4 weeks after strabismus surgery. The degree of postoperative inflammatory infiltration, the extent of fibrosis, and profile of the relative expression of inflammatory mediators in the SR muscle were evaluated and compared between the two groups by histological analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There were statistically meaningful differences in the degree of postoperative inflammatory infiltration and extent of fibrosis between the eyes treated with cryopreserved rabbit AM after SR resection and those underwent SR resection only. A significant decrease in the expression of inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-12a, IL-12b, IL-17f, and tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α)], and a markedly increased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (transforming growth factor-beta-1(TGFβ-1) and IL-10) were observed in the eyes treated with cryopreserved rabbit AM. In this study, we demonstrate that cryopreserved rabbit AM is effective in reducing postoperative inflammation and extent of fibrosis in a rabbit model of strabismus surgery. Our results imply that cryopreserved AM allograft has anti-inflammatory and anti-scarring properties that can prevent postoperative adhesions following strabismus surgery.