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      Thrombin Peptide (TP508) Promotes Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cell Proliferation via PI3 Kinase/Akt Pathway

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          Abstract

          A synthetic peptide representing the receptor-binding domain of human thrombin (TP508) promotes angiogenesis and accelerates wound healing in animal models. However, the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of TP508 have not been clearly defined. In this study, we set out to determine whether TP508 could stimulate stem cell proliferation. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) were incubated with TP508 (5 μg/ml) and cell proliferation was determined by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Our data showed that TP508 treatment significantly stimulated BrdU incorporation in ASCs (p < 0.01). The increased BrdU incorporation induced by TP508 was abolished by the PI3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 at 50 μ M. Western blot analysis of ASCs revealed increased phosphorylation of Akt in response to TP508 when compared to unstimulated controls. These results indicate that TP508 exerts proliferative effects on ASCs via the PI3K/Akt pathway.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Thrombin signalling and protease-activated receptors.

          How does the coagulation protease thrombin regulate cellular behaviour? The protease-activated receptors (PARs) provide one answer. In concert with the coagulation cascade, these receptors provide an elegant mechanism linking mechanical information in the form of tissue injury or vascular leakage to cellular responses. Roles for PARs are beginning to emerge in haemostasis and thrombosis, inflammation, and perhaps even blood vessel development.
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            Intracoronary administration of autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells improves left ventricular function, perfusion, and remodelling after acute myocardial infarction.

            This study was designed to assess whether intracoronary application of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) compared with bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) and control could improve cardiac function after 30 days in a porcine acute myocardial infarction/reperfusion model. An acute transmural porcine myocardial infarction was induced by inflating an angioplasty balloon for 180 min in the mid-left anterior descending artery. Two million cultured autologous stem cells were intracoronary injected through the central lumen of the inflated balloon catheter. Analysis of scintigraphic data obtained after 28 +/- 3 days showed that both absolute and relative perfusion defect decreased significantly after intracoronary administration of ADSCs or BMSCs (relative 30 or 31%, respectively), compared with carrier administration alone (12%, P = 0.048). Left ventricular ejection fraction after 4 weeks increased significantly more after ADSC and BMSC administration than after carrier administration: 11.39 +/- 4.62 and 9.59 +/- 7.95%, respectively vs. 1.95 +/- 4.7%, P = 0.02). The relative thickness of the ventricular wall in the infarction area after cell administration was significantly greater than that after carrier administration. The vascular density of the border zone also improved. The grafted cells co-localized with von Willebrand factor and alpha-smooth muscle actin and incorporated into newly formed vessels. This is the first study to show that not only bone marrow-derived cells but also ADSCs engrafted in the infarct region 4 weeks after intracoronary cell transplantation and improved cardiac function and perfusion via angiogenesis.
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              NAK is an IkappaB kinase-activating kinase.

              Phosphorylation of IkappaB by the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex is a critical step leading to IkappaB degradation and activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB. The IKK complex contains two catalytic subunits, IKKalpha and IKKbeta, the latter being indispensable for NF-kappaB activation by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Although IKK is activated by phosphorylation of the IKKbeta activation loop, the physiological IKK kinases that mediate responses to extracellular stimuli remain obscure. Here we describe an IKK-related kinase, named NAK (NF-kappaB-activating kinase), that can activate IKK through direct phosphorylation. NAK induces IkappaB degradation and NF-kappaB activity through IKKbeta. Endogenous NAK is activated by phorbol ester tumour promoters and growth factors, whereas catalytically inactive NAK specifically inhibits activation of NF-kappaB by protein kinase C-epsilon (PKCepsilon). Thus, NAK is an IKK kinase that may mediate IKK and NF-kappaB activation in response to growth factors that stimulate PKCepsilon activity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2009
                February 2009
                07 July 2008
                : 46
                : 2
                : 98-102
                Affiliations
                Department of Molecular Pathology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Tex., USA
                Article
                142727 J Vasc Res 2009;46:98–102
                10.1159/000142727
                18607113
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 35, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Research Paper

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