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      Liraglutide Improves the Kidney Function in a Murine Model of Chronic Kidney Disease


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          Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health burden, and the current treatment options only slow down the disease progression. GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) have shown a renal protective effect in models of CKD; however, the mechanism behind the beneficial effect is not understood. In this study, we investigate the effect of the GLP-1 RA liraglutide in the nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NTN) CKD model. Moreover, we compare the gene expression pattern of liraglutide-treated mice to the gene expression pattern of mice treated with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril. Methods: The effect of liraglutide was tested in the NTN model by evaluating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), albuminuria, mesangial expansion, renal fibrosis, and renal inflammation. Furthermore, the regulation of selected genes involved in CKD and in glomerular, cortical tubulointerstitial, and whole kidney structures was analyzed using a gene expression array on samples following laser capture microdissection. Results: Treatment with liraglutide improved CKD hallmarks including GFR, albuminuria, mesangial expansion, renal inflammation, and renal fibrosis. The gene expression revealed that both liraglutide and enalapril reversed the regulation of several fibrosis and inflammation associated genes, which are also regulated in human CKD patients. Furthermore, liraglutide and enalapril both regulated genes in the kidney involved in blood pressure control. Conclusions: Treatment with liraglutide improved the kidney function and diminished renal lesions in NTN-induced mice. Both liraglutide and enalapril reversed the regulation of genes involved in CKD and regulated genes involved in blood pressure control.

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          Most cited references43

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          Liraglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes

          The cardiovascular effect of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue, when added to standard care in patients with type 2 diabetes, remains unknown.
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            Is Open Access

            Global Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease – A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

            Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health burden with a high economic cost to health systems and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). All stages of CKD are associated with increased risks of cardiovascular morbidity, premature mortality, and/or decreased quality of life. CKD is usually asymptomatic until later stages and accurate prevalence data are lacking. Thus we sought to determine the prevalence of CKD globally, by stage, geographical location, gender and age. A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies estimating CKD prevalence in general populations was conducted through literature searches in 8 databases. We assessed pooled data using a random effects model. Of 5,842 potential articles, 100 studies of diverse quality were included, comprising 6,908,440 patients. Global mean(95%CI) CKD prevalence of 5 stages 13·4%(11·7–15·1%), and stages 3–5 was 10·6%(9·2–12·2%). Weighting by study quality did not affect prevalence estimates. CKD prevalence by stage was Stage-1 (eGFR>90+ACR>30): 3·5% (2·8–4·2%); Stage-2 (eGFR 60–89+ACR>30): 3·9% (2·7–5·3%); Stage-3 (eGFR 30–59): 7·6% (6·4–8·9%); Stage-4 = (eGFR 29–15): 0·4% (0·3–0·5%); and Stage-5 (eGFR<15): 0·1% (0·1–0·1%). CKD has a high global prevalence with a consistent estimated global CKD prevalence of between 11 to 13% with the majority stage 3. Future research should evaluate intervention strategies deliverable at scale to delay the progression of CKD and improve CVD outcomes.
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              Liraglutide and Renal Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes

              In a randomized, controlled trial that compared liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue, with placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk who were receiving usual care, we found that liraglutide resulted in lower risks of the primary end point (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes) and death. However, the long-term effects of liraglutide on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes are unknown.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                November 2020
                02 September 2020
                : 144
                : 11
                : 595-606
                [_a] aPathology & Imaging, Novo Nordisk, Måløv, Denmark
                [_b] bDepartment of Veterinary Disease Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
                [_c] cDiabetes Research, Novo Nordisk, Måløv, Denmark
                Author notes
                *Maria E. Ougaard, Pathology &amp; Imaging, Novo Nordisk A/S, Novo Nordisk Park 1, DK–2730 Måløv (Denmark), maria.e.ougaard@gmail.com
                509418 Nephron 2020;144:595–606
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 21 January 2020
                : 12 June 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 4, Pages: 12
                Experimental Nephrology and Genetics: Research Article

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Liraglutide,Nephrotoxic serum nephritis model,Hemodynamics,Chronic kidney disease,Gene expression


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