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      Retraction: Enhancing radiosensitivity of melanoma cells through very high dose rate pulses released by a plasma focus device

      retraction
      The PLOS ONE Editors
      PLOS ONE
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          Abstract

          Following the publication of this article [1, corrected in 2], concerns were raised regarding Figs 2, 3, 4 and 9. Specifically, In Fig 2d, band 2 in the PFMA-3 p-P53 panel appears similar to band 1 in the XRT p-P53 panel. Additionally, band 1 in the XRT panel appears to be flanked by vertical discontinuities. In Fig 2d, band 6 in the PFMA-3 p-P53 panel appears to be flanked by horizontal and vertical discontinuities. In Fig 3 the following panels appear similar when levels are adjusted to visualise the background: ○ The 24 hour PFMA-3 panel in Fig 3a and the 24 hour XRT panel in Fig 3b. ○ The ctrl PFMA-3 panel in Fig 3a and the 48 hour PFMA-3 panel in Fig 3b. ○ The 48 hour PFMA-3 panel in Fig 3a and the 3 hour XRT panel in Fig 3c In Fig 3d, bands 1–4 in the XRT p-P53 panel appear similar. In Figure 4d, bands 2 and 5 in the XRT Cleaved Caspase-9 panel appear similar. In Fig 9a, when levels are adjusted to visualise the background in the ctrl BODIPY panel there is a vertical discontinuity on the left side of the panel. The authors stated that underlying data for Figs 2, 3, and 4 were no longer available. The authors concurred with the assessment that band 2 and band 1 in the respective Fig 2d panels appeared similar. The PLOS Editors remain concerned about this figure. The authors stated the concerns in Fig 3a, 3b, and 3c were likely due to errors made during figure preparation. The authors stated that whilst similarities could be observed between bands denoted above in Fig 3d and Fig 4d, they asserted that these bands were not the same images. The authors stated the cause of the vertical discontinuity in Fig 9a was potentially caused by an error in the editing software used to process the image and provided the original underlying image to resolve the concern. In light of the concerns affecting multiple figure panels that question the reliability of these data, the PLOS ONE Editors retract this article. FB agreed with the retraction and apologized for the issues in the article. GCastellani, MS, LI, IZ, AMM, AC and EO did not agree with the retraction. SR, AT, DM and GCucchi either did not respond directly or could not be reached.

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          Enhancing radiosensitivity of melanoma cells through very high dose rate pulses released by a plasma focus device

          Radiation therapy is a useful and standard tumor treatment strategy. Despite recent advances in delivery of ionizing radiation, survival rates for some cancer patients are still low because of recurrence and radioresistance. This is why many novel approaches have been explored to improve radiotherapy outcome. Some strategies are focused on enhancement of accuracy in ionizing radiation delivery and on the generation of greater radiation beams, for example with a higher dose rate. In the present study we proposed an in vitro research of the biological effects of very high dose rate beam on SK-Mel28 and A375, two radioresistant human melanoma cell lines. The beam was delivered by a pulsed plasma device, a “Mather type” Plasma Focus for medical applications. We hypothesized that this pulsed X-rays generator is significantly more effective to impair melanoma cells survival compared to conventional X-ray tube. Very high dose rate treatments were able to reduce clonogenic efficiency of SK-Mel28 and A375 more than the X-ray tube and to induce a greater, less easy-to-repair DNA double-strand breaks. Very little is known about biological consequences of such dose rate. Our characterization is preliminary but is the first step toward future clinical considerations.
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            Correction: Enhancing radiosensitivity of melanoma cells through very high dose rate pulses released by a plasma focus device

            (2018)
            There are errors in the author affiliations. The affiliations should appear as shown here: Francesca Buontempo1, Ester Orsini1, Isabella Zironi2,6,7, Lorenzo Isolan3,8, AlessandraCappellini4, Stefania Rapino5,7, Agostino Tartari3, Domiziano Mostacci3, Giorgio Cucchi3, Alberto Maria Martelli1, Marco Sumini3,6, Gastone Castellani2,6,7 1 University of Bologna, Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, Bologna, Italy, 2 University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bologna, Italy, 3 University of Bologna, Department of Industrial Engineering, Bologna, Italy, 4 University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Department of Human Social and Health Sciences, Cassino, Italy, 5 University of Bologna, Department of Chemistry “G. Ciamician”, Bologna, Italy, 6 National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Bologna, Italy, 7 Interdepartmental Centre “L. Galvani” (CIG) for integrated studies of bioinformatics, biophysics and biocomplexity, Bologna, Italy, 8 European Institute of Oncology and Monzino Cardiac Center Foundation (IEO-CCM), Milano, Italy. In the Funding section, the grant from the funder INFN ETHICS 2015 is incorrectly attributed to Dr. Giorgio Cucchi. The correct attribution is to Gastone Castellani. The publisher apologizes for the errors.
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              Author and article information

              Journal
              PLoS One
              PLoS One
              plos
              PLOS ONE
              Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
              1932-6203
              14 November 2023
              2023
              14 November 2023
              : 18
              : 11
              : e0294549
              Article
              PONE-D-23-36670
              10.1371/journal.pone.0294549
              10645318
              37963168
              e9954fae-32b4-4b43-b27c-46d30b71da34
              © 2023 The PLOS ONE Editors

              This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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