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      Reliability of a Virtual Prosthodontic Project Realized through a 2D and 3D Photographic Acquisition: An Experimental Study on the Accuracy of Different Digital Systems

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          Abstract

          Aims: The study aims to assess the accuracy of digital planning in dentistry, evaluating the characteristics of different intraoral 3D scanners and comparing it with traditional imaging 2D recording methods. Specifically, using computer aided design (CAD) software and measuring inside CAD software, authors want to verify the reliability of different models obtained with different techniques and machines. Methods: 12 patients that needed aesthetic restorative treatment were enrolled in the study. All the patients underwent recording data of the height and width dental elements 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3 size using different technologies and comparing 2D with 3D methods. A T test was then applied in order to verify whether there was a statistically significant difference between the measurements obtained, comparing the different tools data (Emerald, TRIOS, Photogrammetry and DSS (Digital Smile System)) with the reference values. Results: No significant differences emerged in the measurements made with the different scanners (Trios 3Shape ®, Planmeca Emerald ®) and photogrammetry. Therefore, what should be underlined regarding the 2D measurements is the speed and simplicity compared to all 3D techniques, so this work can help to better define the field of application and the limits connected to 2D techniques, giving a good window of the technique. Conclusions: The low number of patients is not sufficient to provide statistically significant results, but the digital planning future prospects seem to be promising. This study results highlighted how a photogrammetric scanner for dental arches would only have a much smaller shooting field size and greater accuracy. Despite these considerations, the photogrammetric facial scanner provided excellent results for the measurement of individual teeth, showing a great versatility of use.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Comparison of digital and conventional impression techniques: evaluation of patients’ perception, treatment comfort, effectiveness and clinical outcomes

          Background The purpose of this study was to compare two impression techniques from the perspective of patient preferences and treatment comfort. Methods Twenty-four (12 male, 12 female) subjects who had no previous experience with either conventional or digital impression participated in this study. Conventional impressions of maxillary and mandibular dental arches were taken with a polyether impression material (Impregum, 3 M ESPE), and bite registrations were made with polysiloxane bite registration material (Futar D, Kettenbach). Two weeks later, digital impressions and bite scans were performed using an intra-oral scanner (CEREC Omnicam, Sirona). Immediately after the impressions were made, the subjects’ attitudes, preferences and perceptions towards impression techniques were evaluated using a standardized questionnaire. The perceived source of stress was evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Scale. Processing steps of the impression techniques (tray selection, working time etc.) were recorded in seconds. Statistical analyses were performed with the Wilcoxon Rank test, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results There were significant differences among the groups (p < 0.05) in terms of total working time and processing steps. Patients stated that digital impressions were more comfortable than conventional techniques. Conclusions Digital impressions resulted in a more time-efficient technique than conventional impressions. Patients preferred the digital impression technique rather than conventional techniques.
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            Interferon Crevicular Fluid Profile and Correlation with Periodontal Disease and Wound Healing: A Systemic Review of Recent Data

            The purpose of the present study was to see if there is a correlation between the effect of interferons in crevicular fluid and periodontitis, evaluating literature. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is an immunoregulatory cytokine that, when activated by its receptor, plays an important role in the activation of inflammatory processes, which are the basis of periodontal disease. Stem cells in the periodontal ligament, like stem cells from other tissues, have immunomodulatory capacity and are regulated by some cytokines such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ). The study searched MEDLINE databases from 2008 to 2018. Clinical human in vitro and in vivo studies had reported a correlation between interferon and periodontitis. The initial search obtained 359 citations. After screening and determination of eligibility, nine articles were included in the review. Significant (p < 0.05) increases in IFN-γ gene expression were observed in some studies in the chronic periodontitis group. In some cases it was suggested that molecular mechanisms underlie the possible roles of IFN-γ in the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Neopterin belongs to the chemical group known as pteridines. It is synthesised by human macrophages upon stimulation with the interferon-gamma. Neopterin concentrations in body fluids are high in the case of infections, immune diseases or graft rejection. In the chronic periodontitis group, this marker is significantly higher. These studies underlined the clinical evidence between interferons in the crevicular fluid and inflammatory response of periodontitis. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence that could lead the clinician to an interferon-modulated therapy because of periodontitis.
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              Fem and Von Mises Analysis of OSSTEM ® Dental Implant Structural Components: Evaluation of Different Direction Dynamic Loads

              Purpose: The objective of this investigation is to study prosthodontics and internal components resistance to the masticatory stress and considering different force directions by using Finite Element Method analysis (FEM). The structural materials of the components are usually Titanium alloy grade 4 or 5 and thus, guarantee the integration of the fixture in the bone due to the osteointegration phenomena. Even if the long-term dental implant survival rate is easy to be obtained and confirmed by numerous researches, the related clinical success, due to the alteration of the mechanical and prosthodontics components is still controversial. Methods: By applying engineering systems of investigations like FEM and Von Mises analyses, it has been investigated how dental implant material was held against the masticatory strength during the dynamic masticatory cycles. A three-dimensional system involved fixture, abutment and the connection screws, which were created and analyzed. The elastic features of the materials used in the study were taken from recent literature data. Results: Data revealed a different response for both types of devices, although implant neck and dental abutment showed better results for all conditions of loading while the abutment screw represented aweak point of the system. Conclusion: The data of this virtual model showed all the features of different prosthetic retention systems under the masticatory load. Clinicians should find better prosthetic balance in order to better distribute the stress over the component and to guarantee patients’ clinical long-term results.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                16 December 2019
                December 2019
                : 16
                : 24
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Private Practice, Telese Terme 82037, Italy; info@ 123456odontosinergy.it (L.L.); giovannidileo@ 123456outlook.com (G.D.L.)
                [2 ]Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences, Morphological and Functional Images, University of Messina, 98100 Messina, Italy; gcervino@ 123456unime.it
                [3 ]Department of Prosthodontics, University of Foggia, 71100 Foggia, Italy; giuseppe.troiano@ 123456unifg.it (G.T.); marco.ortensi90@ 123456gmail.com (M.O.)
                [4 ]Department of Mechanics and Mathematics Management, University of Bari, 70100 Bari, Italy; luigimaria.galantucci@ 123456poliba.it
                Author notes
                Article
                ijerph-16-05139
                10.3390/ijerph16245139
                6950125
                31888225
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Public health

                digital planning, dentistry, intraoral scanner, digital workflow, prosthodontic, virtual

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