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      Risk Assessment for the Population of Kyiv, Ukraine as a Result of Atmospheric Air Pollution

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          Abstract

          Background.

          According to the World Health Organization, 92% of the world's population lives in places where air quality levels exceed recommended limits. Recently, Ukraine had the most deaths per every 100,000 people (out of 120 countries) attributed to atmospheric air pollution. High levels of atmospheric air pollution have been observed not only in typically industrial regions, but in Ukraine's capital, Kyiv, as well.

          Objectives.

          The aim of the present study was to establish the state of air pollution in Kyiv and perform a risk assessment of associated human health effects.

          Methods.

          Using official statistics and state monitoring data, the study aimed to identify and analyze risks to the health of Kyiv's population associated with air pollution. The following methods were used: systematic, functional and comparative analysis, risk theory, mathematical modeling, probability theory and mathematical statistics, as well as geographic information system technologies for digital map design and objective-oriented methodology for software design systems.

          Results.

          The risk values across different areas of the city varied significantly, indicating that atmospheric air quality remains unstable. Areas with the highest and lowest risk values were identified.

          Conclusions.

          The environmental state of atmospheric air in Kyiv requires greater attention and additional research to identify the causes of air pollution, along with implementation of measures to improve air quality.

          Competing Interests.

          The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Effects of particulate matter (PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1)) on the cardiovascular system.

          Several studies have demonstrated that exposure to particulate matter (PM) of different size fractions is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, we have taken into consideration the possible correlation between the "short term" and "long term" effects of PM exposure and the onset of CVDs as well as the possible molecular mechanisms by which PM elicits the development of these events. Particularly, it is here underlined that these adverse health effects depend not only on the level of PM concentration in the air but also on its particular internal composition. Furthermore, we have also synthesized the findings gleaned from those few studies indicating that PM produced by tobacco smoke can give rise to cardiovascular injury.
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            Short-term effect of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) on daily mortality due to diseases of the circulatory system in Madrid (Spain).

            Owing to their small size, fine particles, i.e., those having a diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)), have a high alveolar penetration capacity, thereby triggering a local inflammatory process with circulatory repercussion. Despite being linked to respiratory and cardiovascular morbidities, there is limited evidence of an association between this type of particulate matter and short-term increases in mortality. The aim of this study was to analyse and quantify the short-term impact of PM(2.5) on daily mortality due to diseases of the circulatory system, registered in Madrid from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2005. An ecological longitudinal time-series study was conducted, with risks being quantified by means of Poisson regression models. As a dependent variable, we took daily mortality registered in Madrid from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2005, attributed to all diseases of the circulatory system as classified under heads I00-I99 of the International Classification of Diseases-10th revision (ICD-10) and broken down as follows: I21, acute myocardial infarction (AMI); I20, I22-I25, other ischemic heart diseases; and I60-I69, cerebrovascular diseases. The independent variable was daily mean PM(2.5) concentration. The other variables controlled for were: chemical pollution (PM(10), O(3), SO(2), NO(2) and NO(x)); acoustic and biotic pollution; influenza; minimum and maximum temperatures; seasonalities; trend; and autocorrelation of the series. A linear relationship was observed between PM(2.5) levels and mortality due to diseases of the circulatory system. For every increase of 10 μg/m(3) in daily mean PM(2.5) concentration, the relative risks (RR) were as follows: for overall circulatory mortality, associations were established at lags 2 and 6, with RR of 1.022 (1.005-1.039) and 1.025 (1.007-1.043) respectively; and for AMI mortality, there was an association at lag 6, with an RR of 1.066 (1.032-1.100). The corresponding attributable risks percent (AR%) were 2.16%, 2.47% and 6.21% respectively. No statistically significant association was found with other ischemic heart diseases or with cerebrovascular diseases. PM(2.5) concentrations are an important risk factor for daily circulatory-cause mortality in Madrid. From a public health point of view, the planning and implementation of specific measures targeted at reducing these levels constitute a pressing need. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Air pollution and arterial hypertension. A new risk factor is in the air

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Health Pollut
                hapn
                J Health Pollut
                Journal of Health & Pollution
                Black Smith Institute
                2156-9614
                March 2020
                22 January 2020
                : 10
                : 25
                Affiliations
                [1 ] State Institution, Institute of Environmental Geochemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine
                [2 ] Pukhov Institute for Modelling in Energy Engineering of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine
                [3 ] National University of Civil Defense of Ukraine, Kharkiv, Ukraine
                [4 ] Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Valeriia Kovach, Tel. +380967815496, valeriiakovach@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                i2156-9614-10-25-200303
                10.5696/2156-9614-10.25.200303
                7058139
                © Pure Earth 2020

                This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                Page count
                Pages: 11
                Categories
                Research

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