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      Continuous Flow Synthesis of High Valuable N-Heterocycles via Catalytic Conversion of Levulinic Acid

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          Abstract

          Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3N 4) was successfully functionalized with a low platinum loading to give rise to an effective and stable catalytic material. The synthesized g-C 3N 4/Pt was fully characterized by XRD, N 2 physisorption, XPS, SEM-Mapping, and TEM techniques. Remarkably, XPS analysis revealed that Pt was in a dominant metallic state. In addition, XPS together with XRD and N 2 physisorption measurements indicated that the g-C 3N 4 preserves its native structure after the platinum deposition process. g-C 3N 4/Pt was applied to the catalytic conversion of levulinic acid to N-heterocycles under continuous flow conditions. Reaction parameters (temperature, pressure, and concentration of levulinic acid) were studied using 3 levels for each parameter, and the best conditions were employed for the analysis of the catalyst's stability. The catalytic system displayed high selectivity to 1-ethyl-5-methylpyrrolidin-2-one and outstanding stability after 3 h of reaction.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Graphene-Like Carbon Nitride Nanosheets for Improved Photocatalytic Activities

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            Transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules: from high added-value chemicals to fuels via aqueous-phase processing.

            Global warming issues and the medium-term depletion of fossil fuel reserves are stimulating researchers around the world to find alternative sources of energy and organic carbon. Biomass is considered by experts the only sustainable source of energy and organic carbon for our industrial society, and it has the potential to displace petroleum in the production of chemicals and liquid transportation fuels. However, the transition from a petroleum-based economy to one based on biomass requires new strategies since the petrochemical technologies, well-developed over the last century, are not valid to process the biomass-derived compounds. Unlike petroleum feedstocks, biomass derived platform molecules possess a high oxygen content that gives them low volatility, high solubility in water, high reactivity and low thermal stability, properties that favour the processing of these resources by catalytic aqueous-phase technologies at moderate temperatures. This tutorial review is aimed at providing a general overview of processes, technologies and challenges that lie ahead for a range of different aqueous-phase transformations of some of the key biomass-derived platform molecules into liquid fuels for the transportation sector and related high added value chemicals. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011
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              Liquid phase oxidation chemistry in continuous-flow microreactors.

              Continuous-flow liquid phase oxidation chemistry in microreactors receives a lot of attention as the reactor provides enhanced heat and mass transfer characteristics, safe use of hazardous oxidants, high interfacial areas, and scale-up potential. In this review, an up-to-date overview of both technological and chemical aspects of liquid phase oxidation chemistry in continuous-flow microreactors is given. A description of mass and heat transfer phenomena is provided and fundamental principles are deduced which can be used to make a judicious choice for a suitable reactor. In addition, the safety aspects of continuous-flow technology are discussed. Next, oxidation chemistry in flow is discussed, including the use of oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, ozone and other oxidants in flow. Finally, the scale-up potential for continuous-flow reactors is described.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Chem
                Front Chem
                Front. Chem.
                Frontiers in Chemistry
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2296-2646
                26 February 2019
                2019
                : 7
                Affiliations
                1Grupo FQM-383, Departamento de Química Orgánica, Universidad de Cordoba , Cordoba, Spain
                2Scientific Center for Molecular Design and Synthesis of Innovative Compounds for the Medical Industry, People's Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University) , Moscow, Russia
                Author notes

                Edited by: Fabio Aricò, Università Ca' Foscari, Italy

                Reviewed by: Steve Suib, University of Connecticut, United States; Svetlana Ivanova, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain; Christophe Len, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, France

                *Correspondence: Mario J. Muñoz-Batista qo2mubam@ 123456uco.es ; jmunoz385x@ 123456gmail.com

                This article was submitted to Green and Sustainable Chemistry, a section of the journal Frontiers in Chemistry

                Article
                10.3389/fchem.2019.00103
                6399384
                Copyright © 2019 Rodríguez-Padrón, Puente-Santiago, Balu, Muñoz-Batista and Luque.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 40, Pages: 8, Words: 4631
                Funding
                Funded by: Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad 10.13039/501100003329
                Categories
                Chemistry
                Original Research

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