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Morning salivary cortisol with regard to gender in individuals with perceived facial pain Translated title: Cortisol salivar matutino em relação ao sexo em indivíduos com sintomas de dor facial

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      Abstract

      ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Facial pain seems to be related to physiological responses to stress and sexual dimorphism. However, the relationship among facial pain, cortisol secretion and gender has been poorly investigated. This study aimed to investigate differences in morning salivary cortisol profile between males and females either with or without perceived facial pain symptoms. METHODS: Participated in the study 39 individuals reporting facial pain and 33 painless controls of both genders. Facial pain symptoms were evaluated with Axis II Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders, which has supplied chronic pain scores. Saliva was collected in the morning to obtain cortisol peaks, being stored for further use. Salivary cortisol levels were evaluated by immunosorbent assay. Statistical analysis has included hypotheses tests and ANOVA with significance level of 5% and a binary logistic regression, which has tested the association between gender, cortisol and each facial pain symptom. RESULTS: There has been no association between facial pain and gender. Cortisol levels were similar among individuals with and without facial pain, regardless of gender. The adjusted model has shown that most symptoms were not associated to gender, regardless of cortisol levels. CONCLUSION: In individuals with and without facial pain symptoms, morning salivary cortisol levels regulation has been similar for both genders.

      Translated abstract

      RESUMO JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A percepção da dor facial parece estar relacionada com respostas fisiológicas ao estresse e com o dimorfismo sexual. No entanto, a relação entre dor facial, secreção de cortisol e o sexo ainda foi pouco investigada. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as diferenças nos perfis de cortisol salivar matutino em homens e mulheres com ou sem sintomas de dor facial. MÉTODOS: Trinta e nove indivíduos que relataram dor facial e 33 controles sem dor, de ambos os sexos, participaram deste estudo. Os sintomas de dor facial foram avaliados utilizando o Eixo II do Critério de Diagnóstico para Pesquisa das Disfunções Temporomandibulares, que forneceu os escores de dor crônica. A saliva foi coletada dos participantes no turno matutino a fim de obter os picos de cortisol, sendo armazenada até utilização posterior. Os níveis salivares de cortisol foram avaliados por ensaio imunoenzimático. A análise estatística incluiu testes de hipóteses e ANOVA com nível de significância de 5%, e uma regressão logística binária que testou a associação entre o sexo, cortisol, e cada sintoma de dor facial. RESULTADOS: Não foi observada associação entre dor facial e o sexo. Os níveis de cortisol foram semelhantes entre indivíduos com ou sem dor facial, independentemente do sexo. O modelo ajustado mostrou que a maioria dos sintomas não teve associação com o sexo, independentemente dos níveis de cortisol. CONCLUSÃO: Nos indivíduos com e sem dor facial, a regulação dos níveis de cortisol salivar matutino ocorreu de forma semelhante em ambos os sexos.

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      Most cited references 51

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      The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta version).

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        Salivary cortisol as a biomarker in stress research.

        Salivary cortisol is frequently used as a biomarker of psychological stress. However, psychobiological mechanisms, which trigger the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) can only indirectly be assessed by salivary cortisol measures. The different instances that control HPAA reactivity (hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenals) and their respective modulators, receptors, or binding proteins, may all affect salivary cortisol measures. Thus, a linear relationship with measures of plasma ACTH and cortisol in blood or urine does not necessarily exist. This is particularly true under response conditions. The present paper addresses several psychological and biological variables, which may account for such dissociations, and aims to help researchers to rate the validity and psychobiological significance of salivary cortisol as an HPAA biomarker of stress in their experiments.
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          Measuring cortisol in human psychobiological studies.

          The steroid cortisol is an extensively studied and important variable in developmental and other behavioral studies. Cortisol has been assayed by various methods using a range of substrates including blood, saliva, and urine. Cortisol in blood exists in two forms. While most is bound to carrier proteins, a small portion exists in a soluble free form. The informed choice of cortisol fraction and measurement method is critical for research. Such choices should be influenced by understanding the characteristics of the various cortisol fractions, along with their binding proteins' biological functions and relationship to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The goal of this paper is to familiarize researchers with key points for evaluating the choice of total and free cortisol in research as well reviewing various options for measuring free cortisol. These points are raised with special emphasis on their significance during pregnancy and the post-partum. Such information may prove useful in informing researcher's cortisol-related protocols and in the interpretation of cortisol data.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            São Luís MA orgnameUniversidade Ceuma orgdiv1Departamento de Pós-Graduação Brasil
            São Luís orgnameUniversidade Federal do Maranhão orgdiv1Departamento de Farmácia Brazil
            São Luís orgnameUniversidade Federal do Maranhão orgdiv1Faculdade de Medicina Brazil
            São Luís orgnameUniversidade Federal do Maranhão orgdiv1Departamento de Odontologia II Brazil
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            rdor
            Revista Dor
            Rev. dor
            Sociedade Brasileira para o Estudo da Dor (São Paulo, SP, Brazil )
            1806-0013
            2317-6393
            December 2016
            : 17
            : 4
            : 248-253
            S1806-00132016000400248
            10.5935/1806-0013.20160082

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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            Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 33, Pages: 6
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            Product Information: SciELO Brazil

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