Among the various applications of phytosociology, the evaluation of natural regeneration is of great importance, mainly because it provides insights for ecological restoration. The objective of this study was to analyze the composition and phytosociological parameters of shrub and tree vegetation in areas of plantation of eucalyptus (Corymbia citriodora) and areas of native forest in the Ibura National Forest, located in the Sergipe state of northeastern Brazil. For this purpose, 20 plots were sampled and all individuals with a diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 8 cm were measured. Sampling revealed 821 individuals in the forest area and 1,000 in the eucalyptus area. These individuals represent 84 species and the areas presented a significant difference in species composition, with 61 in the eucalyptus area and 65 in the Forest area, and only 40 species were common to both areas. There was a predominance of pioneer individuals in the eucalyptus area. There also was a significant difference in basal area, relative density and relative dominance, but no significant differences were observed in average height. It was concluded that a period of 35 years is insufficient for the recovery of the eucalyptus area, which remains in a more initial successional stage than the forest area.