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      Characterization of molecular determinants for nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of PRV UL54.

      Animals, COS Cells, Cell Nucleus, chemistry, Cercopithecus aethiops, Cytoplasm, Herpesvirus 1, Suid, physiology, Protein Interaction Mapping, Protein Transport, Viral Proteins, genetics, metabolism

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          The pseudorabies virus (PRV) early protein UL54 is a homologue of the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate-early protein ICP27, which is a multifunctional protein and essential for HSV-1 infection. To determine if UL54 might shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm, as has been shown for its homologues in human herpesviruses, the molecular determinants for its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling were investigated. Heterokaryon assays demonstrated that UL54 was a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein and this property could not be blocked by leptomycin B, an inhibitor of chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1). However, TAP/NXF1 promoted the nuclear export of UL54 and interacted with UL54, suggesting that UL54 shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm via a TAP/NXF1, but not CRM1, dependent nuclear export pathway. Furthermore, UL54 was demonstrated to target to the nucleus through a classic Ran-, importin β1- and α5-dependent nuclear import mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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