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      Correlating Electronic Transport and 1/ f Noise in \({\mathrm{Mo}\mathrm{Se}}_{2}\) Field-Effect Transistors

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          Single-layer MoS2 transistors.

          Two-dimensional materials are attractive for use in next-generation nanoelectronic devices because, compared to one-dimensional materials, it is relatively easy to fabricate complex structures from them. The most widely studied two-dimensional material is graphene, both because of its rich physics and its high mobility. However, pristine graphene does not have a bandgap, a property that is essential for many applications, including transistors. Engineering a graphene bandgap increases fabrication complexity and either reduces mobilities to the level of strained silicon films or requires high voltages. Although single layers of MoS(2) have a large intrinsic bandgap of 1.8 eV (ref. 16), previously reported mobilities in the 0.5-3 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) range are too low for practical devices. Here, we use a halfnium oxide gate dielectric to demonstrate a room-temperature single-layer MoS(2) mobility of at least 200 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), similar to that of graphene nanoribbons, and demonstrate transistors with room-temperature current on/off ratios of 1 × 10(8) and ultralow standby power dissipation. Because monolayer MoS(2) has a direct bandgap, it can be used to construct interband tunnel FETs, which offer lower power consumption than classical transistors. Monolayer MoS(2) could also complement graphene in applications that require thin transparent semiconductors, such as optoelectronics and energy harvesting.
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            Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.

            The remarkable properties of graphene have renewed interest in inorganic, two-dimensional materials with unique electronic and optical attributes. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are layered materials with strong in-plane bonding and weak out-of-plane interactions enabling exfoliation into two-dimensional layers of single unit cell thickness. Although TMDCs have been studied for decades, recent advances in nanoscale materials characterization and device fabrication have opened up new opportunities for two-dimensional layers of thin TMDCs in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. TMDCs such as MoS(2), MoSe(2), WS(2) and WSe(2) have sizable bandgaps that change from indirect to direct in single layers, allowing applications such as transistors, photodetectors and electroluminescent devices. We review the historical development of TMDCs, methods for preparing atomically thin layers, their electronic and optical properties, and prospects for future advances in electronics and optoelectronics.
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              Atomically thin MoS2: A new direct-gap semiconductor

              The electronic properties of ultrathin crystals of molybdenum disulfide consisting of N = 1, 2, ... 6 S-Mo-S monolayers have been investigated by optical spectroscopy. Through characterization by absorption, photoluminescence, and photoconductivity spectroscopy, we trace the effect of quantum confinement on the material's electronic structure. With decreasing thickness, the indirect band gap, which lies below the direct gap in the bulk material, shifts upwards in energy by more than 0.6 eV. This leads to a crossover to a direct-gap material in the limit of the single monolayer. Unlike the bulk material, the MoS2 monolayer emits light strongly. The freestanding monolayer exhibits an increase in luminescence quantum efficiency by more than a factor of 1000 compared with the bulk material.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                PRAHB2
                Physical Review Applied
                Phys. Rev. Applied
                American Physical Society (APS)
                2331-7019
                December 2018
                December 12 2018
                : 10
                : 6
                10.1103/PhysRevApplied.10.064029
                © 2018

                https://link.aps.org/licenses/aps-default-license

                https://link.aps.org/licenses/aps-default-accepted-manuscript-license

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