Haroldo Xavier Linhares Volpe 1 , * , Odimar Zanuzo Zanardi 1 , Rodrigo Facchini Magnani 1 , 2 , Rejane Angélica Grigio Luvizotto 1 , Victoria Esperança 1 , Renato de Freitas 1 , Jennifer Yslaine Delfino 1 , Tatiana Aparecida Mulinari 1 , Rômulo Igor de Carvalho 1 , Nelson Arno Wulff 1 , Marcelo Pedreira de Miranda 1 , Leandro Peña 1 , 3
6 July 2020
In several phytophagous hemipterans, behavior appears to be mediated by both visual and chemical cues. For the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), olfactometric assays are generally difficult to interpret owing to the low proportion of individuals responding to odors (~30–40%), which compromises the efficiency and reliability of the results of behavioral tests. In the present study, the ACP behavioral response to emitted odors from sweet orange ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) flushes in a 4-arm olfactometer using different colors (four white-, two white- and two yellow- on opposite sides, or four yellow-colored fields), and the role of the airflow in the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were assessed at two airflows [0.4 and 0.1 L/min (LPM)]. Exposure to ‘Pera’ sweet orange or clean air in treatments with four yellow-colored-fields increased the response rate of ACP females to the odor sources compared with exposure to ‘Pera’ sweet orange or clean air in treatments with four white-colored-fields, independently of the odor source and airflow tested. For the assays using two white- and two yellow-colored fields on opposite sides and 0.4 or 0.1 LPM airflow, the residence time of ACP females to odors (‘Pera’ sweet orange or clean air) was similar or higher in treatments using yellow- than those using white-colored fields. For both assays (VOCs and olfactometric behavioral parameters), the reduction in airflow from 0.4 to 0.1 LPM greatly changed the airborne concentration and ACP behavior. Quantitative chemical analyses revelead that the concentration of most compounds emitted by ‘Pera’ sweet orange flushes for the headspace using 0.1 LPM airflow were greater than the concentrations measured using 0.4 LPM airflow. Therefore, this treatment design provides an useful tool to assess the ACP behavioral response to the odors from citrus plants, and it can also help in the discrimination of dose-response screenings for VOCs or conspecific insects.