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      Human UMP-CMP kinase 2, a novel nucleoside monophosphate kinase localized in mitochondria.

      The Journal of Biological Chemistry

      Amino Acid Sequence, Cloning, Molecular, DNA, Complementary, Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel, Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, HeLa Cells, Humans, Isoelectric Point, Kinetics, Mitochondria, enzymology, Models, Biological, Molecular Sequence Data, Neoplasms, genetics, Nucleoside-Phosphate Kinase, chemistry, isolation & purification, metabolism, Nucleotides, Phylogeny, Protein Transport, RNA, Messenger, Recombinant Proteins, Subcellular Fractions, Substrate Specificity

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          Abstract

          Enzyme deficiency in the salvage pathway of deoxyribonucleotide synthesis in mitochondria can cause mtDNA depletion syndromes. We have identified a human mitochondrial UMP-CMP kinase (UMP-CMPK, cytidylate kinase; EC 2.7.4.14), designated as UMP-CMP kinase 2 (UMP-CMPK2). The C-terminal domain of this 449-amino acid protein contains all consensus motifs of a nucleoside monophosphate kinase. Phylogenetic analysis showed that UMP-CMPK2 belonged to a novel nucleoside monophosphate kinase family, which was closer to thymidylate kinase than to cytosolic UMP-CMP kinase. Subcellular localization with green fluorescent protein fusion proteins illustrated that UMP-CMPK2 was localized in the mitochondria of HeLa cells and that the mitochondrial targeting signal was included in the N-terminal 22 amino acids. The enzyme was able to phosphorylate dUMP, dCMP, CMP, and UMP with ATP as phosphate donor, but the kinetic properties were different compared with the cytosolic UMP-CMPK. Its efficacy to convert dUMP was highest, followed by dCMP, whereas CMP and UMP were the poorest substrates. It also phosphorylated the monophosphate forms of the nucleoside analogs ddC, dFdC, araC, BVDU, and FdUrd, which suggests that UMP-CMPK2 may be involved in mtDNA depletion caused by long term treatment with ddC or other pyrimidine analogs. UMP-CMPK2 mRNA expression was exclusively detected in chronic myelogenous leukemia K-562 and lymphoblastic leukemia MOLT-4 among eight studied cancer cell lines. Particular high expression in leukemia cells, dominant expression in bone marrow, and tight correlation with macrophage activation and inflammatory response suggest that UMP-CMPK2 may have other functions in addition to the supply of substrates for mtDNA synthesis.

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          Journal
          17999954
          10.1074/jbc.M707997200

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