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      Seasonality and daily flight activity of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on dairy farms in Saraburi Province, Thailand Translated title: Saisonnalité et activité de vol quotidienne des mouches d’étables (Diptera : Muscidae) dans des fermes laitières de la province de Saraburi, Thaïlande

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          Knowledge of seasonal abundance and flight activity patterns are required to design effective management programs for insect pests of humans and livestock. In this study, the seasonality and daily flight activity of Stomoxys species were observed on two dairy farms in Saraburi Province, Thailand. Data were assessed throughout 1 year using Vavoua traps from September 2010 to August 2011. A total of 2,520 individuals belonging to four species were collected. Most Stomoxys species peaked in September (rainy season) and gradually decreased in number toward February (dry season); a second peak occurred between March and April (hot season). Stomoxys calcitrans was caught throughout the year and was the most abundant species in this study. The total number of males and females of S. calcitrans differed significantly among seasons and time intervals. The weather parameters of relative humidity and light intensity were significantly correlated with S. calcitrans abundance.

          Translated abstract

          La connaissance de l’abondance saisonnière et des patrons d’activité en vol est nécessaire pour établir des programmes efficaces de contrôle des insectes nuisibles à l’homme et au bétail. Dans cette étude, les variations saisonnières et l’activité en vol quotidienne des espèces de Stomoxys ont été observées dans deux fermes laitières de la province de Saraburi, Thaïlande. Les données ont été obtenues pendant un an en utilisant des pièges Vavoua de septembre 2010 à août 2011. Un total de 2,520 individus appartenant à quatre espèces a été récolté. La plupart des espèces de Stomoxys avaient un pic d’abondance en septembre (saison humide) et leur nombre décroissait régulièrement jusqu’en février (saison sèche) ; un deuxième pic apparaissait entre mars et avril (saison chaude). Stomoxys calcitrans a été capturé toute l’année et était l’espèce la plus abondante dans cette étude. Le nombre total de mâles et de femelles de S. calcitrans différait significativement selon les saisons et les intervalles de temps. Les paramètres climatiques d’humidité relative et d’intensité lumineuse étaient corrélés de manière significative avec l’abondance de S. calcitrans.

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          Most cited references 17

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          [The trapping of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae). Improvement of a model: the Vavoua trap].

          The control of tsetse flies with traps needs a decrease of their cost/efficiency. In the forest belt of Côte d'Ivoire, the research on Glossina palpalis palpalis behaviour allows to propose a new model of trap, the "Vavoua" trap, issued from the biconical and the pyramidal traps, with a similar efficiency but a twice lower cost (1139 F CFA without manpower, i.e. 3.55 US $, respectively 6.68 and 6.98 US $ for the biconical and the pyramidal). This trap has an upper cone (polyamide mosquito net) overcoming three screens (length 45 cm), sewed at 120 degrees, composed of a blue external part (cotton/polyester) and a black internal part (polyamide) with a blue/black ratio equal to 2. Its low cost and the possibility for the farmer to soak themselves the trap with insecticide allow to consider its use for large-scale control of tsetse flies in the forest zones by rural communities.
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            Effects of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on weight gains of grazing yearling cattle.

            Differences in weight gains caused by stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), on grazing yearling steer/calves averaged 0.2 kg per steer in a 3-yr study on canyon range pastures in West Central Nebraska, Stable fly numbers averaged 0.85 per front leg on treated calves and 3.64 per front leg on control calves. In 2 of the 3 yr after the grazing trials were completed, the calves were placed in a feedlot and fed a finishing ration. Compensatory gain did not occur in the feedlot after the stable fly stress was removed.
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              Effects of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on weight gain and feed efficiency of feedlot cattle.


                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                15 May 2013
                : 20
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2013/01 )
                [1 ] Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University Bangkok 10900 Thailand
                [2 ] Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer, Faculty of Liberal Arts and Science, Kasetsart University Kamphaengsean Nakhon Pathom 73140 Thailand
                [3 ] Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University Bangkok 10900 Thailand
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Email: fvetjjp@ 123456ku.ac.th
                parasite120016 10.1051/parasite/2013016
                © J. Phasuk et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2013

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 24, Pages: 7
                Research Article


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