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      Evaluation of Dry Eye after Implantable Collamer Lens Surgery


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          Objectives: To evaluate dry eye (DE) and associated meibomian gland dysfunction parameters after Implantable Collamer Lens (ICL) surgery. Methods: This is a prospective observational case series. Patients who underwent ICL implantation without previous ocular diseases or ophthalmic treatments were enrolled. Their Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), noninvasive breakup time (NIBUT), meibography, slit-lamp examination of the lid margin, corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), and Schirmer test I were examined preoperatively and at 1 and 3 months postoperatively. Results: A total of 117 eyes of 60 patients were enrolled, and 107 eyes completed 3-month follow-up period. OSDI, lid marginal abnormality, and meibomian gland (MG) secretion, and meibum quality score were significantly higher at 1 month postoperatively and recovered partially at 3 months after surgeries, while NIBUT was significantly decreased all the time. Patients with previous DE symptoms (OSDI score ≥12) showed not only lower Schirmer and TBUT values but also higher CFS, lid margin score, MG loss, MG secretion, and meibum quality scores compared with those in the control group after operations. Low Schirmer, NIBUT values, and high meibum quality score were determined as risk factors for DE symptoms after ICL surgery. Conclusions: ICL implantation has a bad influence on the ocular surface and MG functions. The influence may be more obvious in patients with existing DE.

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          Most cited references22

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          The international workshop on meibomian gland dysfunction: report of the diagnosis subcommittee.

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            Grading of corneal and conjunctival staining in the context of other dry eye tests.

            To describe the Oxford Scheme for grading ocular surface staining in dry eye and to discuss optimization of stain detection using various dyes and filters. Also, to propose a sequence of testing for dry eye diagnosis. The grading of corneal and conjunctival staining is described, using the Oxford Scheme, including biomicroscopy, optical filters, illumination conditions, and the characteristics of and instillation techniques used for, selected clinical dyes. A series of panels, labeled A-E, in order of increasing severity, reproducing the staining patterns encountered in dry eye, are used as a guide to grade the degree of staining seen in the patient. The amount of staining seen in each panel, represented by punctate dots, increases by 0.5 of the log of the number of dots between panels B to E. The use of the vital dyes fluorescein, lissamine green, and rose Bengal is described; fluorescein and lissamine green, used in conjunction with appropriate absorption filters, are recommended for use in clinical trials. The placement of staining in relation to the sequence of other diagnostic tests is discussed. The monitoring and assessment of corneal and conjunctival staining can be greatly enhanced by the use of a grading scale, controlled instillation of dyes, and standard evaluation techniques. This is of particular benefit in clinical trials, where ocular surface staining is commonly employed as an outcome measure
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              Noncontact infrared meibography to document age-related changes of the meibomian glands in a normal population.

              To examine the morphologic changes in meibomian glands associated with aging and gender using a novel meibography system and to assess their relation with slit-lamp findings regarding eyelid and tear film function in a normal population. Cross-sectional observation case series. Two hundred thirty-six healthy volunteers (114 men, 122 women; mean age+/-standard deviation, 41.2+/-23.1 years; range, 4-98 years). The upper and lower eyelids were turned over and the meibomian glands were observed using the noncontact meibography system, which consisted of a slit lamp equipped with an infrared charge-coupled device video camera and an infrared transmitting filter. A transilluminating light probe was not necessary. Partial or complete loss of the meibomian glands was scored for each eyelid from grade 0 (no loss of meibomian glands) through grade 3 (the lost area was more than two thirds of the total meibomian gland area). The tear film break-up time (BUT) was measured and tear film production was evaluated by Schirmer test. Score of meibomian gland changes (meiboscore), tear film BUT, and Schirmer test value. Using the meibography system, clear images of the meibomian glands were obtained in all subjects, including children. There were significant positive correlations between age and meiboscore in the entire subject population (R = 0.428; P<0.0001), as well as in males (R = 0.462; P<0.0001) and females (R = 0.418; P<0.0001). There were significant negative correlations between age and tear film BUT (R = -0.153; P = 0.019) and the Schirmer test value (R = -0.289; P<0.0001). The meiboscore was significantly positively correlated with the lid margin abnormality score (R = 0.359; P<0.0001). The noncontact meibography system is a useful, quick, and patient-friendly method for obtaining information on the meibomian gland structure. Using this method, the authors found that changes in meibomian glands increase with age.

                Author and article information

                Ophthalmic Res
                Ophthalmic Research
                S. Karger AG
                June 2021
                22 September 2020
                : 64
                : 3
                : 356-362
                Department of Ophthalmology, Cangzhou Central Hospital, Cangzhou, China
                Author notes
                *Yuxiang Fan, Department of Ophthalmology, Cangzhou Central Hospital, No. 16 Xinhua West Road, Yunhe District, Cangzhou, Hebei 061000 (China), fanyuxiang1965@sina.com
                511197 Ophthalmic Res 2021;64:356–362
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 24 June 2020
                : 23 August 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Pages: 7
                Research Article

                Vision sciences,Ophthalmology & Optometry,Pathology
                Implantable Collamer Lens,Dry eye,Meibomian gland dysfunction


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