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      Ischemic Nephropathy in an Elderly Nephrologic and Hypertensive Population

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          Background: Atherosclerotic renovascular disease is a frequent cause of end-stage renal failure leading to dialysis in the elderly population. Its prevalence is known from autopsy or retrospective arteriographic investigations. This prospective study was conducted in 133 subjects with the inclusion criteria of hypertension and/or chronic renal failure starting after 50 years of age. Renal failure was unrelated to other known causes of renal disease. Methods: The patients were subjected to echo-color doppler ultrasonography of renal arteries (104) and/or to renal scintigraphy (112). Thirteen of 27 patients with positivity using one or both noninvasive techniques were subjected to digital selective angiography. Results: All the patients with positivity of echo-color doppler technique were true positives, with a consequent predictive value reaching 100%. Renal scintigraphy was of markedly lower predictive value. Based on the echo-color doppler investigation, percentage positivity for hemodynamically significant stenosis (>50%) was 3.2 (16.3% had mild nonsignificant stenosis of renal arteries) in the 50- to 59-year-old group, 20% (plus 12.5% with nonsignificant stenosis) in the 60- to 69-year-old group and 25% (plus 17.8% nonsignificant stenosis) in the >70-year age group. Patients with significant stenosis also had a significantly higher degree of renal insufficiency and received a higher number of hypotensive drugs (p < 0.013). The percentage of hypertensive patients was not different in the stenotic and nonstenotic groups. Conclusions: A large percentage of the elderly population is affected by renal vascular obstructive disease and is at risk of developing end-stage renal failure. Considering the wide number of cases with foreseeable renal arterial stenosis in the vast population meeting the selection criteria, it is possible to conclude that not all cases evolve to renal failure due to different rates of progression or to untimely nonrenal death.

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          Renal duplex sonography: evaluation of clinical utility.

          With the exception of conventional angiography, no previously proposed screening test has the necessary sensitivity/specificity to guide further evaluation for correctable renovascular disease. Recently, renal duplex sonography has been suggested as a useful substitute in such screening for renovascular disease. This report analyzes our data collected over the past 10 months in evaluation of renal duplex sonography to examine its diagnostic value. The study population for renal duplex sonography validity analysis consisted of 74 consecutive patients who had 77 comparative renal duplex sonography and standard angiographic studies of the arterial anatomy to 148 kidneys. Renal duplex sonography results from six kidneys (4%) were considered inadequate for interpretation. This study population contained 26 patients (35%) with severe renal insufficiency (mean 3.6 mg/dl) and 67 hypertension (91%). Fourteen patients (19%) had 20 kidneys with multiple renal arteries. Bilateral disease was present in 22 of the 44 patients with significant renovascular disease. Renal duplex sonography correctly identified the presence of renovascular disease in 41 of 44 patients with angiographically proven lesions, and renovascular disease was not identified in any patient free of disease. When single renal arteries were present (122 kidneys), renal duplex sonography provided 93% sensitivity, 98% specificity, 98% positive predictive value, 94% negative predictive value, and an overall accuracy of 96%. These results were adversely affected when kidneys with multiple (polar) renal arteries were examined. Although the end diastolic ratio was inversely correlated with serum creatinine (r = -0.3073, p = 0.009), low end diastolic ratio in 35 patients submitted to renovascular reconstruction did not preclude beneficial blood pressure or renal function response. We conclude from this analysis that renal duplex sonography can be a valuable screening test in the search for correctable renovascular disease causing global renal ischemia and secondary renal insufficiency (ischemic nephropathy). Renal duplex sonography does not, however, exclude polar vessel renovascular disease causing hypertension alone nor does it predict hypertension or renal function response after correction of renovascular disease.

            Author and article information

            Am J Nephrol
            American Journal of Nephrology
            S. Karger AG
            June 1998
            06 May 1998
            : 18
            : 3
            : 221-227
            Chair of Nephrology, Renal Pathophysiology and Hypertension Unit and a Chair of Vascular Surgery, La Sapienza University, and b Department of Nuclear Medicine, C. Forlanini Hospital, and c Istituto Superiore Sanità, Rome, Italy
            13340 Am J Nephrol 1998;18:221–227
            © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

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            Page count
            Figures: 1, Tables: 6, References: 22, Pages: 7
            Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/13340
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