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      Ancient Microbial Activity in Deep Hydraulically Conductive Fracture Zones within the Forsmark Target Area for Geological Nuclear Waste Disposal, Sweden

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      Geosciences
      MDPI AG

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          Methanogenic archaea: ecologically relevant differences in energy conservation.

          Most methanogenic archaea can reduce CO(2) with H(2) to methane, and it is generally assumed that the reactions and mechanisms of energy conservation that are involved are largely the same in all methanogens. However, this does not take into account the fact that methanogens with cytochromes have considerably higher growth yields and threshold concentrations for H(2) than methanogens without cytochromes. These and other differences can be explained by the proposal outlined in this Review that in methanogens with cytochromes, the first and last steps in methanogenesis from CO(2) are coupled chemiosmotically, whereas in methanogens without cytochromes, these steps are energetically coupled by a cytoplasmic enzyme complex that mediates flavin-based electron bifurcation.
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            Biogenic methane formation in marine and freshwater environments: CO2 reduction vs. acetate fermentation—Isotope evidence

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              Environmental genomics reveals a single-species ecosystem deep within Earth.

              DNA from low-biodiversity fracture water collected at 2.8-kilometer depth in a South African gold mine was sequenced and assembled into a single, complete genome. This bacterium, Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator, composes >99.9% of the microorganisms inhabiting the fluid phase of this particular fracture. Its genome indicates a motile, sporulating, sulfate-reducing, chemoautotrophic thermophile that can fix its own nitrogen and carbon by using machinery shared with archaea. Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator is capable of an independent life-style well suited to long-term isolation from the photosphere deep within Earth's crust and offers an example of a natural ecosystem that appears to have its biological component entirely encoded within a single genome.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                GBSEDA
                Geosciences
                Geosciences
                MDPI AG
                2076-3263
                June 2018
                June 11 2018
                : 8
                : 6
                : 211
                Article
                10.3390/geosciences8060211
                e9fb6bc4-3467-4d44-afc2-4818fb0b941a
                © 2018

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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