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      Testicular Expressed Genes Are Missing in Familial X-Linked Kallmann Syndrome due to Two Large Different Deletions in Daughter’s X Chromosomes

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          Abstract

          Background: X-linked Kallmann syndrome (KS) is caused mainly by point mutations, in the KAL1 gene. Large deletions >1 Mb are rare events in the human population and commonly result in contiguous gene syndromes. Methods: A search for the mutation causing KS carried out on two pairs of first-degree cousins of 2 sisters. Results: Two different apparently independent deletions were found. The deleted sequences encompass the KAL1 gene and four known additional genes exclusively expressed in testis. Two of these genes belong to the FAM9 gene family, which shares some homology with the SCYP3 gene, previously implicated in azoospermia. One of the events causing the deletion may have been mediated by an L1 transposition, the other by a non-homologous end joining. Such non-homologous recombinations have not yet been reported in the KAL genomic region and thus this area may be more prone to deletions than previously expected. Conclusions: This is the first report on genetic characterization of KS with a deletion of solely testis-expressed genes. The absence of these genes may have unfavorable implications for the patients regarding future fertility.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Mobile elements: drivers of genome evolution.

          Mobile elements within genomes have driven genome evolution in diverse ways. Particularly in plants and mammals, retrotransposons have accumulated to constitute a large fraction of the genome and have shaped both genes and the entire genome. Although the host can often control their numbers, massive expansions of retrotransposons have been tolerated during evolution. Now mobile elements are becoming useful tools for learning more about genome evolution and gene function.
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            PipMaker--a web server for aligning two genomic DNA sequences.

            PipMaker (http://bio.cse.psu.edu) is a World-Wide Web site for comparing two long DNA sequences to identify conserved segments and for producing informative, high-resolution displays of the resulting alignments. One display is a percent identity plot (pip), which shows both the position in one sequence and the degree of similarity for each aligning segment between the two sequences in a compact and easily understandable form. Positions along the horizontal axis can be labeled with features such as exons of genes and repetitive elements, and colors can be used to clarify and enhance the display. The web site also provides a plot of the locations of those segments in both species (similar to a dot plot). PipMaker is appropriate for comparing genomic sequences from any two related species, although the types of information that can be inferred (e.g., protein-coding regions and cis-regulatory elements) depend on the level of conservation and the time and divergence rate since the separation of the species. Gene regulatory elements are often detectable as similar, noncoding sequences in species that diverged as much as 100-300 million years ago, such as humans and mice, Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae, or Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. PipMaker supports analysis of unfinished or "working draft" sequences by permitting one of the two sequences to be in unoriented and unordered contigs.
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              Genomic deletions created upon LINE-1 retrotransposition.

              LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposition continues to impact the human genome, yet little is known about how L1 integrates into DNA. Here, we developed a plasmid-based rescue system and have used it to recover 37 new L1 retrotransposition events from cultured human cells. Sequencing of the insertions revealed the usual L1 structural hallmarks; however, in four instances, retrotransposition generated large target site deletions. Remarkably, three of those resulted in the formation of chimeric L1s, containing the 5' end of an endogenous L1 fused precisely to our engineered L1. Thus, our data demonstrate multiple pathways for L1 integration in cultured cells, and show that L1 is not simply an insertional mutagen, but that its retrotransposition can result in significant deletions of genomic sequence.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2008
                May 2008
                06 February 2008
                : 69
                : 5
                : 276-283
                Affiliations
                aPediatric Endocrinology & Metabolic Unit, Soroka Medical University Center, and bDepartment of Developmental Genetics and Virology, Faculty of Health Sciences, and the cNational Institute of Biotechnology Negev, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
                Article
                114858 Horm Res 2008;69:276–283
                10.1159/000114858
                18259106
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 26, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Paper

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