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      Prevalence of Moderate or Severe Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Obese Persons with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

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          Abstract

          We investigated prior to gastric bypass surgery the prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) by Doppler and tissue Doppler echocardiography in 14 obese women and in 6 obese men, mean age 45 years, with a mean body mass index of 49 ± 5 kg/m<sup>2</sup> who had nocturnal polysomnography for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The Doppler and tissue Doppler echocardiographic data were analyzed blindly without knowledge of the clinical characteristics or whether OSA was present or absent. Of 20 patients, 8 (40%) had no OSA, 4 (20%) had mild OSA, and 8 (40%) had moderate or severe OSA. Moderate or severe LVDD was present in 4 of 8 patients (50%) with moderate or severe OSA and in none of 12 patients (0%) with no or mild OSA (p < 0.01). Obese patients with moderate or severe OSA have a higher prevalence of moderate or severe LVDD than obese patients with no or mild OSA.

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          Most cited references 7

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          A practical approach to the echocardiographic evaluation of diastolic function.

          A number of recent community-based epidemiologic studies suggest that 40% to 50% of the cases of heart failure have preserved left ventricular systolic function. Although diastolic heart failure is often not well clinically recognized, it is associated with marked increases in morbidity and all-cause mortality. Doppler echocardiography has emerged as the principal clinical tool for the assessment of left ventricular diastolic function. Doppler mitral inflow velocity-derived variables remain the cornerstone of the evaluation of diastolic function. Pulmonary venous Doppler flow indices and mitral inflow measurements with Valsalva's maneuver are important adjuncts for differentiating normal and pseudonormal mitral inflow patterns. Unfortunately, these Doppler flow variables are significantly influenced by loading conditions and, therefore, the results from these standard techniques can be inconclusive. Recently, color M-mode and Doppler tissue imaging have emerged as new modalities that are less affected by preload and, thus, provide a strong complementary role in the assessment of diastolic function. This review will discuss the diastolic properties of the left ventricle, Doppler echocardiographic evaluation, and grading of diastolic dysfunction.
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            Sleep apnea and heart failure: Part II: central sleep apnea.

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              A mechanism of central sleep apnea in patients with heart failure.

               S Javaheri (1999)
              Breathing is controlled by a negative-feedback system in which an increase in the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide stimulates breathing and a decrease inhibits it. Although enhanced sensitivity to carbon dioxide helps maintain the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide within a narrow range during waking hours, in some persons a large hyperventilatory response during sleep may lower the value below the apneic threshold, thereby resulting in central apnea. I tested the hypothesis that enhanced sensitivity to carbon dioxide contributes to the development of central sleep apnea in some patients with heart failure. This prospective study included 20 men who had treated, stable heart failure with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Ten had central sleep apnea, and 10 did not. The patients underwent polysomnography and studies of their ventilatory response to carbon dioxide. Patients who met the criteria for central sleep apnea had significantly more episodes of central apnea per hour than those without central sleep apnea (mean [+/-SD], 35+/-24 vs. 0.5+/-1.0 episodes per hour). Those with sleep apnea also had a significantly larger ventilatory response to carbon dioxide than those without central sleep apnea (5.1+/-3.1 vs. 2.1+/-1.0 liters per minute per millimeter of mercury, P=0.007), and there was a significant positive correlation between ventilatory response and the number of episodes of apnea and hypopnea per hour during sleep (r=0.6, P=0.01). Enhanced sensitivity to carbon dioxide may predispose some patients with heart failure to the development of central sleep apnea.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2005
                August 2005
                24 August 2005
                : 104
                : 2
                : 107-109
                Affiliations
                Department of Medicine, Divisions of Cardiology and Pulmonary/Critical Care, New York Medical College, Valhalla, N.Y., USA
                Article
                87128 Cardiology 2005;104:107–109
                10.1159/000087128
                16043965
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 1, References: 12, Pages: 3
                Categories
                General Cardiology

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