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      Development and validation of the Mothers of Preterm Babies Postpartum Depression Scale

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          Postpartum depression, a common complication in childbearing women, is of great public health concern. Previous screening tools have focused on depressed mood, with less attention paid to postpartum anxiety and suicidal ideation. This study developed and validated a tool to measure postpartum depression among mothers of preterm babies. From the clinical interviews and a pilot survey ( n=121) the Mothers of Preterm Babies Postpartum Depression Scale was developed. The Mothers of Preterm Babies Postpartum Depression Scale and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale questionnaires were completed by 152 mothers who delivered preterm babies at Massey Street Children’s Hospital, Lagos. Data were analyzed with use of confirmatory factor analysis, principal component analysis, and Cronbach’s alpha at the P≤0.05 level of significance. The new scale demonstrated a reliability ( α) of 0.91. Construct validity with exploratory factor analysis (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure 0.70) yielded three dimensions of cognitive and emotional difficulty ( α=0.92), hopelessness and suicidal ideation ( α=0.93), and physiological distress ( α=0.71). Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated a good fit: 18 degrees of freedom; goodness of fit index 0.97; adjusted goodness of fit index 0.93; and root mean square error of approximation 0.04. Convergent validity was established with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale ( r=0.66, P=0.00). The new screening tool was demonstrated to have meritorious validity, faster and easier to administer to the obstetric population.

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          The Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire: a validation.

          This is a validation of a self-rating questionnaire designed to detect disorders of the mother-infant relationship. 125 subjects filled in the questionnaire, and were also interviewed using the 5(th) Edition of the Birmingham Interview for Maternal Mental Health. On the basis of these interviews and the case records, we made consensus diagnoses of various forms and degrees of mother infant relationship disorder, according to criteria published in this paper. We calculated specificity, sensitivity and positive predictive value of the four scale scores generated by the questionnaire. Scale 1 (a general factor) had a sensitivity of 0.82 for all mother-infant relationship disorders. Scale 2 (rejection and pathological anger) had a sensitivity of 0.88 for rejection of the infant, but only 0.67 for severe anger. The performance of scale 3 (infant-focused anxiety) was unsatisfactory. Scale 4 (incipient abuse) selected only a few mothers, but was of some value in identifying those at high risk of child abuse. Revision of the thresholds can improve sensitivity, especially of scale 2, where a cut-off point of 12 = normal, 13 = high better identifies mothers with threatened rejection. These new cut-off points would need validation in another sample.
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            A Screening Questionnaire for mother-infant bonding disorders

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              Sociodemographic and obstetric risk factors for postpartum depressive symptoms in Nigerian women.

              Studies from the Western culture have emphasized psychosocial risk factors for the development of postnatal depression (PND). In Africa, poor obstetrics practice and sociodemographic factors may contribute significantly to the risk of PND. The goal of this study was to examine sociodemographic and obstetric risk factors for postnatal depressive symptoms in a Nigerian community. 876 women recruited at 6 weeks postpartum from the postnatal and infant immunization clinics of 5 participating health centers were screened with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Sociodemographic and obstetric information were also obtained through a structured questionnaire. The mean EPDS score was 5.66 (SD = 4.20). Depression was diagnosed in 128 (14.6 %) of the postpartum women. The predictors of PND include hospital admissions during the pregnancy (OR 3.95, CI 2.57-6.07), female sex of the baby (OR 2.74, CI 1.87-4.03), preterm delivery (OR 4.21, CI 2.78-6.39), instrumental delivery (OR 3.32, CI 1.79-6.16), Cesarean section (OR 3.58, CI 1.72-7.48), and being single (OR 3.44, CI 2.15-5.53). Although the prevalence of PND symptoms seems to be the same across cultures, risk factors differ significantly. This study identified certain sociodemographic and obstetric risk factors for postnatal depressive symptoms in an underdeveloped community. These factors must be taken into consideration when planning intervention and preventive strategies for these women.

                Author and article information

                Family Medicine and Community Health
                Compuscript (Ireland )
                September 2018
                September 2018
                : 6
                : 3
                : 104-114
                1Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
                Author notes
                CORRESPONDING AUTHORS: Ajibola A. Ishola and Chisom C. Obasi, Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, E-mail: ajibola_ishola@ 123456yahoo.co.uk (A.A. Ishola), chisomobasi@ 123456yahoo.com (C.C. Obasi)
                Copyright © 2018 Family Medicine and Community Health

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

                Page count
                Pages: 11
                Self URI (journal page): http://fmch-journal.org/
                Original Research


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