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      Burnout in Relation to Specific Contributing Factors and Health Outcomes among Nurses: A Systematic Review


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          Nurses have been found to experience higher levels of stress-related burnout compared to other health care professionals. Despite studies showing that both job satisfaction and burnout are effects of exposure to stressful working environments, leading to poor health among nurses, little is known about the causal nature and direction of these relationships. The aim of this systematic review is to identify published research that has formally investigated relationships between these variables. Six databases (including CINAHL, COCHRANE, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PROQUEST and PsyINFO) were searched for combinations of keywords, a manual search was conducted and an independent reviewer was asked to cross validate all the electronically identified articles. Of the eighty five articles that were identified from these databases, twenty one articles were excluded based on exclusion criteria; hence, a total of seventy articles were included in the study sample. The majority of identified studies exploring two and three way relationships (n = 63) were conducted in developed countries. Existing research includes predominantly cross-sectional studies (n = 68) with only a few longitudinal studies (n = 2); hence, the evidence base for causality is still very limited. Despite minimal availability of research concerning the small number of studies to investigate the relationships between work-related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and the general health of nurses, this review has identified some contradictory evidence for the role of job satisfaction. This emphasizes the need for further research towards understanding causality.

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          Hospital Nurse Staffing and Patient Mortality, Nurse Burnout, and Job Dissatisfaction

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            Job demands-resources, burnout and intention to leave the nursing profession: a questionnaire survey.

            The aims of the paper are to examine the role of burnout in the relationship between stress factors related to nurses' work and social environment and intention to leave the profession and to investigate the nature of the relationship between burnout and intention to leave the nursing profession. A postulate of the job demands-resources model is that two distinct yet related processes contribute to the development of burnout. The energetic process originates from demands and is mainly centered on emotional exhaustion; the motivational process originates from resources and is mainly centered on depersonalization. Moreover, we postulated that the two components of burnout are linked indirectly to intention to leave the profession via psychosomatic complaints, associated with the energetic process, and via professional commitment, associated with the motivational process. The research model was tested on cross-sectional data collected in 2005 from 1636 registered nurses working in hospitals who responded to a self-administrated questionnaire. Demands are the most important determinants of emotional exhaustion and indirectly induce depersonalization via emotional exhaustion, whereas resources mainly predict depersonalization. Moreover, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization are linked to psychosomatic complaints and professional commitment, which are in turn associated with intention to leave the profession. The results suggest that a dual strategy is needed in order to retain nurses within the profession: a decrease in job demands, coupled with an increase in available job resources. In particular, nurses' tasks and role should be restructured to reduce work overload and increase the meaning of their work. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Stress and coping in Australian nurses: a systematic review.

              To identify factors that contribute to stress in Australian nurses, consider the coping strategies they use and examine the effects of stressors on nurses' health and well-being. Stress is a major concern in the nursing profession with work overload, nurse shortages and high turnover rates as the common stressors. Although nursing stress has been studied extensively, there is a lack of clarity on the nursing situation in Australia. A systematic review of the current literature was conducted on stress and coping strategies within the Australian nursing population. Stressors included work overload, role conflicts and experiences of aggression. Coping strategies included seeking support, problem solving and self-control. The majority of the studies reported detrimental effects on nurses' physical and mental well-being with little consideration given to the spillover effects of nursing work stress to their family and social relationships. Recommendations included factoring in personal and work stresses, promoting the use of effective coping strategies and maintaining supportive social relationships.

                Author and article information

                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                31 May 2013
                June 2013
                : 10
                : 6
                : 2214-2240
                [1 ]School of Health Sciences, Department of Public Health, Monash South Africa, 144 Peter Road, Roodepoort, Johannesburg 1725, South Africa
                [2 ]Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Victoria, Melbourne 3800, Australia; E-Mail: brian.oldenburg@ 123456monash.edu
                [3 ]Human Science Research Council, 134 Pretorius Street, Pretoria 0002, South Africa; E-Mail: kpeltzer@ 123456hsrc.ac.za
                [4 ]University of Limpopo, University Street, Turfloop, Sovenga, Polokwane 0727, South Africa
                [5 ]ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Mahidol University, Salaya 73170, Thailand
                [6 ]Monash Alfred Hospital Campus, Level 3 Burnet Tower, 89 Commercial Road, Melbourne 3004, Australia
                Author notes
                [* ] Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: natasha.khamisa@ 123456monash.edu ; Tel.: +27-11-950-4450.
                © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                : 01 March 2013
                : 16 May 2013
                : 24 May 2013

                Public health
                work related stress,burnout,job satisfaction,general health,staff nurses,relationship
                Public health
                work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction, general health, staff nurses, relationship


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