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      Three new triterpenoids isolated from the aerial parts of Ilex cornuta and protective effects against H 2O 2-induced myocardial cell injury

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          In the present study, three new triterpenoids, 23-hydroxyurs-12, 18-dien-28-oic acid 3 β- O- α-L-arabinopyranoside ( 1), 23-hydroxyurs-12, 18-dien-28-oic acid 3 β- O- β-D-glucuronopyranoside-6- O-methyl ester ( 2), and urs-12, 18-dien-28-oic acid 3 β- O- β-D-glucuronopyranoside-6- O-methyl ester ( 3), and a known triterpenoid, 3 β-hydroxy-urs-2, 18-dien-28-oic acid ( 4, randialic acid B), were isolated from the aerial parts of Ilex cornuta. Their structures were identified by the spectroscopic analyses (IR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR) and chemical reactions. Compound 4 showed significant cell-protective effects against H 2O 2-induced H9c2 cardiomyocyte injury. Compounds 14 did not show any significant DPPH radical scavenging activity.

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          Two new flavonoids and other constituents in licorice root: their relative astringency and radical scavenging effects.

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            Oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease: novel tools give (free) radical insight.

            Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in the Western world and accounts for up to a third of all deaths worldwide. Cardiovascular disease is multifactorial and involves complex interplay between lifestyle (diet, smoking, exercise, ethanol consumption) and fixed (genotype, age, menopausal status, gender) causative factors. The initiating step in cardiovascular disease is endothelial damage, which exposes these cells and the underlying cell layers to a deleterious inflammatory process which ultimately leads to the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. Intrinsic to lesion formation is cellular oxidative stress, due to the production of damaging free radicals (reactive oxygen and nitrogen species) by many cell types including endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and monocytes/macrophages. Exogenous factors such as smoking and the existence of other disease states such as diabetes also contribute to oxidative stress and are strong risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In this review we describe this role of free radicals in atherosclerosis and discuss the mechanisms and cellular systems by which these radicals are produced. We also highlight recent technological advances which have added to the vascular biologist's armoury and which promise to provide new insight into the role of reactive oxygen species in cardiovascular disease.
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              Morphological, biochemical, and electrophysiological characterization of a clonal cell (H9c2) line from rat heart.

              Morphological, electrophysiological, and biochemical properties of H9c2 cells, a permanent cell line derived from rat cardiac tissue, were studied. Although the lectin binding pattern revealed similar sugar residues in the surface coat of H9c2 cells and isolated rat cardiocytes, heart-specific morphological structures could not be detected in H9c2 cells. Under physiological ionic conditions, H9c2 cells exhibited an outwardly rectifying, transient K+ current. When this current component was blocked by Ba2+ and Cs+, we observed an inward current through Ca2+ channels (15.8 +/- 2.2 pA/pF, n = 18, measured as Ba2+ current) that showed all characteristics of cardiac L-type currents. The activation kinetics were fast, and the current was stimulated by isoproterenol. The effect of isoproterenol was mimicked by forskolin or intracellularly applied cAMP. In radioligand binding experiments, we identified a specific, saturable, stereoselective and reversible high-affinity [3H]-(+)PN 200-110 binding with a dissociation constant Kd = 0.53 +/- 0.28 nM and a maximal specific binding of Bmax = 129.3 +/- 16.1 fmol/mg protein. There was an additional low-affinity/high-capacity binding site, which is unlikely to be related to a Ca2+ channel protein. Signal-transducing G proteins in membranes were characterized by [32P]ADP-ribosylation catalyzed by bacterial toxins and by the use of various antibodies. Cholera toxin substrates of 42 and 45 kd were identified that apparently correlated to Gs alpha-subunits. Pertussis toxin substrates of 40-41 kd were tentatively identified as Gi alpha-subunits. The G protein Go was absent or at least extremely low in concentration.

                Author and article information

                Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
                20 February 2017
                : 15
                : 2
                : 115-120
                1Children’s Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215003, China
                2College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China
                Author notes
                *Corresponding authors: XU Qiong-Ming, Tel: 86-512-69561421, Fax: 86-512-65882089, E-mail: xuqiongming@ ; MAO Chen-Mei, Tel/Fax: 86-512-80692201, E-mail: maocm68@

                These authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

                Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


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