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      mTOR signalling and cellular metabolism are mutual determinants in cancer

      , ,
      Nature Reviews Cancer
      Springer Nature America, Inc

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          Bidirectional transport of amino acids regulates mTOR and autophagy.

          Amino acids are required for activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase which regulates protein translation, cell growth, and autophagy. Cell surface transporters that allow amino acids to enter the cell and signal to mTOR are unknown. We show that cellular uptake of L-glutamine and its subsequent rapid efflux in the presence of essential amino acids (EAA) is the rate-limiting step that activates mTOR. L-glutamine uptake is regulated by SLC1A5 and loss of SLC1A5 function inhibits cell growth and activates autophagy. The molecular basis for L-glutamine sensitivity is due to SLC7A5/SLC3A2, a bidirectional transporter that regulates the simultaneous efflux of L-glutamine out of cells and transport of L-leucine/EAA into cells. Certain tumor cell lines with high basal cellular levels of L-glutamine bypass the need for L-glutamine uptake and are primed for mTOR activation. Thus, L-glutamine flux regulates mTOR, translation and autophagy to coordinate cell growth and proliferation.
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            Pyruvate kinase M2 is a PHD3-stimulated coactivator for hypoxia-inducible factor 1.

            The pyruvate kinase isoforms PKM1 and PKM2 are alternatively spliced products of the PKM2 gene. PKM2, but not PKM1, alters glucose metabolism in cancer cells and contributes to tumorigenesis by mechanisms that are not explained by its known biochemical activity. We show that PKM2 gene transcription is activated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). PKM2 interacts directly with the HIF-1α subunit and promotes transactivation of HIF-1 target genes by enhancing HIF-1 binding and p300 recruitment to hypoxia response elements, whereas PKM1 fails to regulate HIF-1 activity. Interaction of PKM2 with prolyl hydroxylase 3 (PHD3) enhances PKM2 binding to HIF-1α and PKM2 coactivator function. Mass spectrometry and anti-hydroxyproline antibody assays demonstrate PKM2 hydroxylation on proline-403/408. PHD3 knockdown inhibits PKM2 coactivator function, reduces glucose uptake and lactate production, and increases O(2) consumption in cancer cells. Thus, PKM2 participates in a positive feedback loop that promotes HIF-1 transactivation and reprograms glucose metabolism in cancer cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Lactate Metabolism in Human Lung Tumors

              Cancer cells consume glucose and secrete lactate in culture. It is unknown whether lactate contributes to energy metabolism in living tumors. We previously reported that human non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) oxidize glucose in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Here we show that lactate is also a TCA cycle carbon source for NSCLC. In human NSCLC, evidence of lactate utilization was most apparent in tumors with high 18 fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and aggressive oncological behavior. Infusing human NSCLC patients with 13 C-lactate revealed extensive labeling of TCA cycle metabolites. In mice, deleting monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT1) from tumor cells eliminated lactate-dependent metabolite labeling, confirming tumor-cell autonomous lactate uptake. Strikingly, directly comparing lactate and glucose metabolism in vivo indicated that lactate's contribution to the TCA cycle predominates. The data indicate that tumors, including bona fide human NSCLC, can use lactate as a fuel in vivo. Human non-small cell lung cancer preferentially utilizes lactate over glucose to fuel TCA cycle and sustain tumor metabolism in vivo.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Cancer
                Nat Rev Cancer
                Springer Nature America, Inc
                1474-175X
                1474-1768
                November 13 2018
                Article
                10.1038/s41568-018-0074-8
                30425336
                ea22c3da-e5dc-4fe6-aae2-ce038a65293c
                © 2018

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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