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      Exposure to the Functional Bacterial Amyloid Protein Curli Enhances Alpha-Synuclein Aggregation in Aged Fischer 344 Rats and Caenorhabditis elegans

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          Abstract

          Misfolded alpha-synuclein (AS) and other neurodegenerative disorder proteins display prion-like transmission of protein aggregation. Factors responsible for the initiation of AS aggregation are unknown. To evaluate the role of amyloid proteins made by the microbiota we exposed aged rats and transgenic C. elegans to E. coli producing the extracellular bacterial amyloid protein curli. Rats exposed to curli-producing bacteria displayed increased neuronal AS deposition in both gut and brain and enhanced microgliosis and astrogliosis compared to rats exposed to either mutant bacteria unable to synthesize curli, or to vehicle alone. Animals exposed to curli producing bacteria also had more expression of TLR2, IL-6 and TNF in the brain than the other two groups. There were no differences among the rat groups in survival, body weight, inflammation in the mouth, retina, kidneys or gut epithelia, and circulating cytokine levels. AS-expressing C. elegans fed on curli-producing bacteria also had enhanced AS aggregation. These results suggest that bacterial amyloid functions as a trigger to initiate AS aggregation through cross-seeding and also primes responses of the innate immune system.

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          Staging of brain pathology related to sporadic Parkinson's disease.

          Sporadic Parkinson's disease involves multiple neuronal systems and results from changes developing in a few susceptible types of nerve cells. Essential for neuropathological diagnosis are alpha-synuclein-immunopositive Lewy neurites and Lewy bodies. The pathological process targets specific induction sites: lesions initially occur in the dorsal motor nucleus of the glossopharyngeal and vagal nerves and anterior olfactory nucleus. Thereafter, less vulnerable nuclear grays and cortical areas gradually become affected. The disease process in the brain stem pursues an ascending course with little interindividual variation. The pathology in the anterior olfactory nucleus makes fewer incursions into related areas than that developing in the brain stem. Cortical involvement ensues, beginning with the anteromedial temporal mesocortex. From there, the neocortex succumbs, commencing with high order sensory association and prefrontal areas. First order sensory association/premotor areas and primary sensory/motor fields then follow suit. This study traces the course of the pathology in incidental and symptomatic Parkinson cases proposing a staging procedure based upon the readily recognizable topographical extent of the lesions.
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            The amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease at 25 years

            Abstract Despite continuing debate about the amyloid β‐protein (or Aβ hypothesis, new lines of evidence from laboratories and clinics worldwide support the concept that an imbalance between production and clearance of Aβ42 and related Aβ peptides is a very early, often initiating factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Confirmation that presenilin is the catalytic site of γ‐secretase has provided a linchpin: all dominant mutations causing early‐onset AD occur either in the substrate (amyloid precursor protein, APP) or the protease (presenilin) of the reaction that generates Aβ. Duplication of the wild‐type APP gene in Down's syndrome leads to Aβ deposits in the teens, followed by microgliosis, astrocytosis, and neurofibrillary tangles typical of AD. Apolipoprotein E4, which predisposes to AD in > 40% of cases, has been found to impair Aβ clearance from the brain. Soluble oligomers of Aβ42 isolated from AD patients' brains can decrease synapse number, inhibit long‐term potentiation, and enhance long‐term synaptic depression in rodent hippocampus, and injecting them into healthy rats impairs memory. The human oligomers also induce hyperphosphorylation of tau at AD‐relevant epitopes and cause neuritic dystrophy in cultured neurons. Crossing human APP with human tau transgenic mice enhances tau‐positive neurotoxicity. In humans, new studies show that low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ42 and amyloid‐PET positivity precede other AD manifestations by many years. Most importantly, recent trials of three different Aβ antibodies (solanezumab, crenezumab, and aducanumab) have suggested a slowing of cognitive decline in post hoc analyses of mild AD subjects. Although many factors contribute to AD pathogenesis, Aβ dyshomeostasis has emerged as the most extensively validated and compelling therapeutic target.
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              Staging of brain pathology related to sporadic Parkinson’s disease

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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Dept. of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University , Cleveland, Ohio, USA
                [2 ]Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine , Louisville, Kentucky, USA
                [3 ]Dept. of Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine , Louisville, Kentucky, USA
                [4 ]Dept. of Oral Immunology and Infectious Diseases, University of Louisville School of Dentistry , Louisville, Kentucky, USA
                [5 ]Dept. of Pediatrics, University of Louisville School of Medicine , Louisville, Kentucky, USA
                [6 ]Dept. of Physiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine , Louisville, Kentucky, USA
                [7 ]Dept. of Neurology, University of Louisville School of Medicine , Louisville, Kentucky, USA
                [8 ]Dept. of Epidemiology and Population Health, University of Louisville School of Public Health , Louisville, Kentucky, USA
                [9 ]Laboratory of Experimental Neuropathology, University of California , San Diego, California, USA.
                Author notes
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                06 October 2016
                2016
                : 6
                27708338 5052651 srep34477 10.1038/srep34477
                Copyright © 2016, The Author(s)

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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