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TSC2 mediates cellular energy response to control cell growth and survival.

Cell

AMP-Activated Protein Kinases, Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing, Animals, Apoptosis, genetics, Carrier Proteins, metabolism, Cell Division, Cell Respiration, Cell Survival, Energy Metabolism, physiology, Food Deprivation, Glucose, deficiency, Humans, Mice, Multienzyme Complexes, Phosphoproteins, Phosphorylation, Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases, Repressor Proteins, Tumor Suppressor Proteins, Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa

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      Abstract

      Mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 tumor suppressor gene are responsible for Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. The gene products of TSC1 and TSC2 form a functional complex and inhibit the phosphorylation of S6K and 4EBP1, two key regulators of translation. Here, we describe that TSC2 is regulated by cellular energy levels and plays an essential role in the cellular energy response pathway. Under energy starvation conditions, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylates TSC2 and enhances its activity. Phosphorylation of TSC2 by AMPK is required for translation regulation and cell size control in response to energy deprivation. Furthermore, TSC2 and its phosphorylation by AMPK protect cells from energy deprivation-induced apoptosis. These observations demonstrate a model where TSC2 functions as a key player in regulation of the common mTOR pathway of protein synthesis, cell growth, and viability in response to cellular energy levels.

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      Most cited references 45

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      Role of AMP-activated protein kinase in mechanism of metformin action.

       J Ventre,  G. Zhou,  R. Myers (2001)
      Metformin is a widely used drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes with no defined cellular mechanism of action. Its glucose-lowering effect results from decreased hepatic glucose production and increased glucose utilization. Metformin's beneficial effects on circulating lipids have been linked to reduced fatty liver. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major cellular regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism. Here we report that metformin activates AMPK in hepatocytes; as a result, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity is reduced, fatty acid oxidation is induced, and expression of lipogenic enzymes is suppressed. Activation of AMPK by metformin or an adenosine analogue suppresses expression of SREBP-1, a key lipogenic transcription factor. In metformin-treated rats, hepatic expression of SREBP-1 (and other lipogenic) mRNAs and protein is reduced; activity of the AMPK target, ACC, is also reduced. Using a novel AMPK inhibitor, we find that AMPK activation is required for metformin's inhibitory effect on glucose production by hepatocytes. In isolated rat skeletal muscles, metformin stimulates glucose uptake coincident with AMPK activation. Activation of AMPK provides a unified explanation for the pleiotropic beneficial effects of this drug; these results also suggest that alternative means of modulating AMPK should be useful for the treatment of metabolic disorders.
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        TSC2 is phosphorylated and inhibited by Akt and suppresses mTOR signalling.

        Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the formation of hamartomas in a wide range of human tissues. Mutation in either the TSC1 or TSC2 tumour suppressor gene is responsible for both the familial and sporadic forms of this disease. TSC1 and TSC2 proteins form a physical and functional complex in vivo. Here, we show that TSC1-TSC2 inhibits the p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (an activator of translation) and activates the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1, an inhibitor of translational initiation). These functions of TSC1-TSC2 are mediated by inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Furthermore, TSC2 is directly phosphorylated by Akt, which is involved in stimulating cell growth and is activated by growth stimulating signals, such as insulin. TSC2 is inactivated by Akt-dependent phosphorylation, which destabilizes TSC2 and disrupts its interaction with TSC1. Our data indicate a molecular mechanism for TSC2 in insulin signalling, tumour suppressor functions and in the inhibition of cell growth.
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          Identification of the tuberous sclerosis complex-2 tumor suppressor gene product tuberin as a target of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/akt pathway.

          The S/T-protein kinases activated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) regulate a myriad of cellular processes. Here, we show that an approach using a combination of biochemistry and bioinformatics can identify substrates of these kinases. This approach identifies the tuberous sclerosis complex-2 gene product, tuberin, as a potential target of Akt/PKB. We demonstrate that, upon activation of PI3K, tuberin is phosphorylated on consensus recognition sites for PI3K-dependent S/T kinases. Moreover, Akt/PKB can phosphorylate tuberin in vitro and in vivo. We also show that S939 and T1462 of tuberin are PI3K-regulated phosphorylation sites and that T1462 is constitutively phosphorylated in PTEN(-/-) tumor-derived cell lines. Finally, we find that a tuberin mutant lacking the major PI3K-dependent phosphorylation sites can block the activation of S6K1, suggesting a means by which the PI3K-Akt pathway regulates S6K1 activity.
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            Journal
            14651849

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