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      An illustrated key to the species of Gasteruption Latreille (Hymenoptera, Gasteruptiidae) from Palaearctic China, with description of four new species

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          Abstract

          Four new species of the genus Gasteruption Latreille, 1797 ( Hymenoptera : Evanioidea : Gasteruptiidae : Gasteruptiinae ) are described from China. Three are from Shaanxi (NW China; G. granulatum Tan & van Achterberg, sp. nov., G. pedion Tan & van Achterberg, sp. nov., and G. reductum Tan & van Achterberg, sp. nov.) and one from S China and Ningxia ( G. kexinae Tan & van Achterberg, sp. nov.). Eleven species are newly recorded for Shaanxi ( G. abeillei Kieffer, 1912, G. amoyense Pasteels, 1958, G. bimaculatum Pasteels, 1958, G. corniculigerum Enderlein, 1913, G. latitibia Zhao, van Achterberg & Xu, 2012, G. minutum (Tournier, 1877), G. nigritarse (Thomson, 1883), G. parvicollarium Enderlein, 1913, G. sinarum Kieffer, 1911, G. subtile (Thomson, 1883) and G. brevicuspis Kieffer, 1911). The newly-recorded species and the new species are keyed and illustrated. Two new synonyms are proposed: G. rufescenticorne Enderlein, 1913, with G. japonicum Cameron, 1888, syn. nov. and G. oriplanum Kieffer, 1911, with G. minutum (Tournier, 1877), syn. nov.

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          Most cited references 57

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          Higher-level phylogeny of the Hymenoptera inferred from mitochondrial genomes.

          Higher-level hymenopteran relationships remain unresolved in both morphological and molecular analyses. In this study, we present the most comprehensive analyses of hymenopteran relationships based on 48 mitochondrial (mt) genomes. One complete and two nearly complete mt genomes representing three hymenopteran superfamilies were newly sequenced. We assessed the influence of inclusion/exclusion of 3rd codon positions, alignment approaches, partition schemes and phylogenetic approaches on topology and nodal support within the Hymenoptera. The results showed that the topologies were sensitive to the variation of dataset and analytical approach. However, some robust and highly supported relationships were recovered: the Ichneumonomorpha was monophyletic; the Trigonalyoidea+Megalyroidea and the Diaprioidea+Chalcidoidea were consistently recovered; the Cynipoidea was generally recovered as the sister group to the Diaprioidea+Chalcidoidea. In addition, the monophyletic Aculeata and Proctotrupomorpha were recovered in some analyses. Several gene rearrangements were detected in each of the three newly sequenced mt genomes. Specifically, the Ibalia leucospoides mt genome harbors a large inversion of a gene block from trnE to trnS2. Inverted, duplicated A+T rich regions were detected in the Ibalia leucospoides mt genome, which probably played an important role during the formation of the large gene block inversion via recombination.
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            Illustrated key to the subfamilies of the Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea).

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              THE MORPHOLOGY, TAXONOMY, AND BIOLOGY OF THE BRITISH EVANIOIDEA (HYMENOPTERA)

               R CROSSKEY (1951)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2021
                19 May 2021
                : 1038
                : 1-103
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Animal Conservation / Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China, College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, 229 North Taibai Road, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710069, China Northwest University Xi'an China
                [2 ] State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology and Ministry of Agriculture / Key Lab of Agricultural Entomology, Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China Zhejiang University Hangzhou China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Jiang-Li Tan ( tanjl@ 123456nwu.edu.cn )

                Academic editor: Michael S. Engel

                Article
                64978
                10.3897/zookeys.1038.64978
                8154885
                Jiang-Li Tan, Cornelis van Achterberg, Jia-Xuan Wu, Hang Wang, Qi-Jing Zhang

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Gasteruptiidae
                Hymenoptera
                Systematics
                Cenozoic
                Asia

                Animal science & Zoology

                inner mongolia, new record, ningxia, shaanxi, xinjiang

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