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      Wolbachia screening in spiders and assessment of horizontal transmission between predator and prey

      , , ,
      Neotropical Entomology
      Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil
      Insect, predation, phylogenetics

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          Recent studies have revealed that the prevalence of Wolbachia in arthropods is attributable not only to its vertical transmission, but also to its horizontal transfer. In order to assess the horizontal transmission of Wolbachia between predator and prey, arthropods belonging to 11 spider families and six insect families were collected in the same field of rice. The distribution of Wolbachia in these arthropods was detected by diagnostic PCR amplification of the wsp (Wolbachia outer surface protein gene) and 16S rDNA genes. Nurscia albofasciata Strand (Araneae: Titanoecidae), Propylea japonica Thunberg (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Paederus fuscipes Curtis (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), and Nilaparvata lugens Stal (Homoptera: Delphacidae) were infected with Wolbachia. This is the first report of infection of N. albofasciata and P. fuscipes by Wolbachia. No direct evidence indicated the existence of horizontal transmission of Wolbachia between predator and prey.

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          Dynamics of mitochondrial DNA evolution in animals: amplification and sequencing with conserved primers.

          With a standard set of primers directed toward conserved regions, we have used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify homologous segments of mtDNA from more than 100 animal species, including mammals, birds, amphibians, fishes, and some invertebrates. Amplification and direct sequencing were possible using unpurified mtDNA from nanogram samples of fresh specimens and microgram amounts of tissues preserved for months in alcohol or decades in the dry state. The bird and fish sequences evolve with the same strong bias toward transitions that holds for mammals. However, because the light strand of birds is deficient in thymine, thymine to cytosine transitions are less common than in other taxa. Amino acid replacement in a segment of the cytochrome b gene is faster in mammals and birds than in fishes and the pattern of replacements fits the structural hypothesis for cytochrome b. The unexpectedly wide taxonomic utility of these primers offers opportunities for phylogenetic and population research.
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            Multilocus sequence typing system for the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis.

            The eubacterial genus Wolbachia comprises one of the most abundant groups of obligate intracellular bacteria, and it has a host range that spans the phyla Arthropoda and Nematoda. Here we developed a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme as a universal genotyping tool for Wolbachia. Internal fragments of five ubiquitous genes (gatB, coxA, hcpA, fbpA, and ftsZ) were chosen, and primers that amplified across the major Wolbachia supergroups found in arthropods, as well as other divergent lineages, were designed. A supplemental typing system using the hypervariable regions of the Wolbachia surface protein (WSP) was also developed. Thirty-seven strains belonging to supergroups A, B, D, and F obtained from singly infected hosts were characterized by using MLST and WSP. The number of alleles per MLST locus ranged from 25 to 31, and the average levels of genetic diversity among alleles were 6.5% to 9.2%. A total of 35 unique allelic profiles were found. The results confirmed that there is a high level of recombination in chromosomal genes. MLST was shown to be effective for detecting diversity among strains within a single host species, as well as for identifying closely related strains found in different arthropod hosts. Identical or similar allelic profiles were obtained for strains harbored by different insect species and causing distinct reproductive phenotypes. Strains with similar WSP sequences can have very different MLST allelic profiles and vice versa, indicating the importance of the MLST approach for strain identification. The MLST system provides a universal and unambiguous tool for strain typing, population genetics, and molecular evolutionary studies. The central database for storing and organizing Wolbachia bacterial and host information can be accessed at http://pubmlst.org/wolbachia/.
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              DnaSP, DNA polymorphism analyses by the coalescent and other methods


                Author and article information

                Neotropical Entomology
                Neotrop. entomol.
                Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil (Londrina, PR, Brazil )
                April 2011
                : 40
                : 2
                : 164-169
                [01] Wuhan orgnameHubei Univ orgdiv1College of Life Science China
                [02] Wuhan orgnameHuazhong Agricultural Univ orgdiv1College of Plant Science and Technology China
                S1519-566X2011000200002 S1519-566X(11)04000202

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                : 10 December 2009
                : 11 October 2010
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 39, Pages: 6

                SciELO Brazil

                Self URI: Full text available only in PDF format (EN)
                Ecology, Behavior and Bionomics

                Insect, phylogenetics, predation


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